Cuba Annals

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is an island country located in the northern Caribbean Sea. It is located at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Cuba is positioned to the south of the United States and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, and north of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands.



Cuba features a tropical climate, characterized by warm temperatures throughout the year. The country experiences distinct wet and dry seasons, with the wet season typically lasting from May to October and the dry season from November to April. The average temperature ranges from 25°C to 30°C (77°F to 86°F), with higher temperatures in the summer months.


Cuba boasts a diverse range of fauna, including various species of birds, reptiles, and mammals. The island is home to the Cuban crocodile, the world’s smallest bird, the bee hummingbird, and the Cuban solenodon, a rare insectivore. The surrounding waters are teeming with marine life, including sharks, dolphins, and colorful coral reefs.

Longest Rivers

Cuba’s rivers are relatively short compared to those of other countries, with the Cauto River being the longest at approximately 230 miles (370 kilometers). Other notable rivers include the Zaza, Sagua la Grande, and Toa rivers, which play important roles in irrigation and freshwater supply.

Highest Mountains

The highest mountain range in Cuba is the Sierra Maestra, located in the southeastern part of the island. Pico Turquino is the tallest peak in this range, standing at 1,974 meters (6,476 feet) above sea level. Other significant mountain ranges include the Sierra del Escambray and the Sierra de los Órganos.



Cuba has a rich pre-Columbian history, with evidence of indigenous settlements dating back over 4,000 years. The island was inhabited by various indigenous peoples, including the Taíno, Guanahatabey, and Ciboney tribes, who lived off fishing, farming, and hunting.

Spanish Colonization

In 1492, Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba during his first voyage to the Americas, claiming the island for Spain. Spanish colonization began in the early 16th century, leading to the establishment of sugar plantations and the forced labor of indigenous peoples and African slaves.

Independence Struggles

Cuba remained under Spanish rule until the late 19th century when Cuban patriots, led by figures such as José Martí and Antonio Maceo, fought for independence. The Spanish-American War of 1898 resulted in Cuba gaining independence from Spain, although it became a de facto protectorate of the United States.

Revolution and Communist Rule

In 1959, Fidel Castro and his guerrilla forces overthrew the US-backed government of Fulgencio Batista, establishing a communist regime. Cuba became a close ally of the Soviet Union during the Cold War, leading to tensions with the United States, including the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.


Cuba has a population of approximately 11.3 million people, with a diverse mix of ethnicities and cultures. The majority of the population is of mixed European and African descent, with smaller indigenous and Asian communities. Spanish is the official language, and the predominant religion is Christianity, with a significant number of Catholics and adherents of Afro-Cuban religions.

Administrative Divisions

Cuba is divided into 15 provinces and one special municipality, the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth). Each province is further divided into municipalities, resulting in a total of 168 municipalities across the country.

  1. Pinar del Río
  2. Artemisa
  3. La Habana
  4. Mayabeque
  5. Matanzas
  6. Cienfuegos
  7. Villa Clara
  8. Sancti Spíritus
  9. Ciego de Ávila
  10. Camagüey
  11. Las Tunas
  12. Holguín
  13. Granma
  14. Santiago de Cuba
  15. Guantánamo
  16. Isla de la Juventud (Special Municipality)

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Havana
  2. Santiago de Cuba
  3. Camagüey
  4. Holguín
  5. Santa Clara
  6. Guantanamo
  7. Bayamo
  8. Cienfuegos
  9. Pinar del Río
  10. Matanzas

Education Systems

Education in Cuba is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 15. The country boasts a high literacy rate and a well-developed education system, with a focus on universal access to education and vocational training. The University of Havana is the oldest university in Cuba and one of the leading institutions of higher education in the country.


Cuba has several international airports, with José Martí International Airport in Havana being the busiest. The country also has an extensive network of railways and highways, connecting major cities and towns. The five major ports in Cuba are Havana, Santiago de Cuba, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, and Mariel.

Country Facts

  • Population: 11.3 million
  • Capital: Havana
  • Language: Spanish
  • Religion: Predominantly Christianity (Catholicism and Afro-Cuban religions)
  • Race: Mixed European and African descent
  • Currency: Cuban Peso (CUP) and Cuban Convertible Peso (CUC)
  • ISO Country Codes: ISO 3166-1 alpha-2: CU, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3: CUB
  • International Calling Code: +53
  • Top-Level Domain: .cu