Wildlife in Africa
Animal Geographical considered Africa north of the Sahara to the pale Arctic region, while Africa Sahara is considered to the Ethiopian region. Sahara forms an almost impenetrable barrier between the two regions, and there are few northern elements in the Ethiopian region. By contrast, the Ethiopian region shows kinship with the Oriental region (Asia south of the Himalayas, Sunda Islands) and South America. Occasionally, Madagascar with neighboring islands is separated as a separate region. The primitive lemurs occur only here.
In the area north of the Sahara Berber-species (gibraltarape), porcupine, badger, jackal, Fennec Fox (Fennek) and springmus distinctive animals, while the richest wildlife Saharan found in savanna areas. The ungulates are particularly conspicuous. The most distinctive species are elephant, zebra, pointed and stump horn, hippopotamus, giraffe, coffee buffalo (forest buffalo) and antelope. There are more than 50 species of antelope, including water buck, impala,stripegnu and gazelles. Known predators are lion, leopard, cheetah, hyenas and jackals. The 50 monkeys include gorillas, chimpanzees, baboons and cat cats.
Many countries have tried to preserve the original fauna through the creation of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and nature reserves (for example, the Krüger National Park in South Africa, Virunga in Zaire, Arusha, Mikumi, Ruaha and Serengeti in Tanzania, and Masai-Mara and Tsavo in Kenya).
The reptiles are represented by crocodiles, turtles and numerous lizard and snake species. Gabon wasps, mambas and cobras are feared poison snakes. The cutting python can be 7 m long. The chameleons are numerous, but difficult to spot, while the nile varietal of up to 2 m is Africa’s largest lizard.
The bird life is incredibly rich. Characteristic birds are ostrich, marabou, vultures, guinea fowl, hornbills, weavers, ox-hawks and sunbirds. In the wetlands, pelicans, herons, ibises, flamingos, cranes and leaf chickens live. Numerous European birds such as ducks, waders and sparrow birds winter in Africa.
Scorpions are especially common in the deserts of North Africa. Of insects include malaria mosquitoes, tsetse fly, termites and locusts. The Goliath beetle in the tropical forests is one of the world’s largest insects.
|Country||Inflation (percent)||Currency||External debt (USD million)|
|Algeria||2.0 (2019)||Algerian dinar||5,699 (2017)|
|Angola||17.1 (2019)||kwanza||37 201 (2017)|
|Benin||-0.9 (2019)||West African franc||2,897 (2017)|
|Botswana||2.8 (2019)||pula||1 740 (2017)|
|Burkina Faso||-3.2 (2019)||West African franc||3 119 (2017)|
|Burundi||-0.7 (2019)||Burundian franc||613 (2017)|
|Central African Republic||–||Central African Franc||731 (2017)|
|Comoros||-4.3 (2013)||comorisk franc||166 (2017)|
|Djibouti||3.3 (2019)||Djibouti Franc||2 057 (2017)|
|Egypt||14.4 (2018)||Egyptian pound||82 886 (2017)|
|Equatorial Guinea||1.2 (2019)||Central African Franc||–|
|Ivory Coast||-1.1 (2019)||West African franc||13 433 (2017)|
|Ethiopia||15.8 (2019)||birr||26 562 (2017)|
|Gabon||2.5 (2019)||Central African Franc||6 166 (2017)|
|Gambia||7.1 (2019)||dalasi||650 (2017)|
|Ghana||7.2 (2019)||cedi||22 022 (2017)|
|Guinea||9.5 (2019)||guineafranc||1 489 (2017)|
|Guinea-Bissau||-1.5 (2014)||West African franc||328 (2017)|
|Cameroon||2.5 (2019)||Central African Franc||10 396 (2017)|
|Cape Verde||1.1 (2019)||Cape Verdean escudo||1 762 (2017)|
|Kenya||4.7 (2018)||Kenyan shilling||26 424 (2017)|
|Congo-Brazzaville||2.2 (2019)||Central African Franc||4 456 (2017)|
|Congo-Kinshasa||2.9 (2016)||Congolese franc||5 128 (2017)|
|Lesotho||5.2 (2019)||loti||936 (2017)|
|Liberia||23.6 (2018)||Liberian dollar||1 137 (2017)|
|Libya||2.6 (2013)||Libyan dinar||–|
|Madagascar||5.6 (2019)||ariary||3 376 (2017)|
|Malawi||9.4 (2019)||kwacha||2 160 (2017)|
|Mali||-1.7 (2019)||West African CFA franc||4 368 (2017)|
|Morocco||0.2 (2019)||dirham||49 752 (2017)|
|Mauritania||2.3 (2019)||ouguiya||4 231 (2017)|
|Mauritius||0.4 (2019)||rupee||10 483 (2017)|
|Mozambique||2.8 (2019)||metical||12 010 (2017)|
|Namibia||3.7 (2019)||Namibian dollar||–|
|Niger||-2.5 (2019)||West African franc||3 323 (2017)|
|Nigeria||11.4 (2019)||naira||40 238 (2017)|
|Rwanda||3.4 (2019)||Rwandan franc||3 338 (2017)|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||7.9 (2018)||good||262 (2017)|
|Senegal||1.8 (2019)||West African franc||8 886 (2017)|
|Seychelles||1.8 (2019)||Seychelles rupee||–|
|Sierra Leone||14.8 (2019)||leone||1 731 (2017)|
|Somalia||–||Somali shilling||2,958 (2017)|
|Sudan||51.0 (2019)||New Sudanese pound||21 754 (2017)|
|South Africa||4.1 (2019)||stripe||176 335 (2017)|
|South Sudan||187.9 (2017)||South Sudanese pound||–|
|Tanzania||3.5 (2019)||Tanzanian shilling||18 242 (2017)|
|Chad||-1.0 (2019)||Central African CFA franc||3 139 (2017)|
|Togo||0.7 (2019)||Central African Franc||1 631 (2017)|
|Tunisia||6.7 (2019)||Tunisian dinar||32 152 (2017)|
|Uganda||2.9 (2019)||Ugandan shilling||11 189 (2017)|
|Zambia||9.2 (2019)||zambisk kwacha||16 309 (2017)|
|Zimbabwe||0.9 (2017)||Zimbabwean dollar 2||9 330 (2017)|
Africa – landscape
Africa is a compact continent with almost no peninsula and fjords. The landscape is generally a flat, high-altitude plateau; in many places the plateau ends quite abruptly on the coast. The continent has only large mountain ranges far to the north (the Atlas Mountains) and the south (the Cape Chain); individual volcanic cones make up the continent’s highest mountains: Kilimanjaro (5895 m) and Mount Kenya (5199 m) in East Africa. They mark themselves in the flat countryside like the great tomb of the Rift Valley, the Cameroon Mountains, the Ethiopian Highlands and the Hoggar and Tibesti Mountains in the Sahara. These structures, like the African island mountains, have their background in the geological history of the continent. The Insel Mountains rise significantly on the plateaus as the most resilient remains of the former landscape.
Locally, soil conditions can vary widely and mapping of these is incomplete. A distinction is made between elevation areas and basin areas with depositional soils; generally the very old depositional soils are found in West Africa, while the East African soils are younger.
Natural geographical regions
As the African landscape is devoid of great elevation differences, the continent’s symmetrical position around the equator has a decisive impact on the climate and natural conditions in general. In Central and North West Africa, the natural geographical regions from the equator and north are referred to as Guinea, Sudan, Sahel and Sahara, where the decreasing rainfall is the deciding factor. This pattern can partly be found south of the equator.
Around the equator, the temperature is constant and high, averaging 24-28 ° C, and the diurnal variation is greater than the annual variation; the rainfall is constant and large. Here are various types of evergreen rainforest; Along the coasts are mangrove forests that can withstand frequent flooding of salt water. Inland there are the typical rainforests with great species diversity; the forest stands on several floors and the forest floor is moist, dark and relatively cool. The rainforest area has been exploited for thousands of years by peoples with different production systems; smaller family farms using a form of sweat farming are the most widespread, but there can still be found people like the pygmies who live as hunters and gatherers in the rainforest.
South and north of the rainforest, where rainfall is less and can be absent for periods, plant growth becomes more dispersed and the rainforest is replaced by savanna. The savanna areas are inhabited both by resident farmers and by nomads; the two different population groups have some exchange of goods and services, but they are also competitors on the territory. Kikuyu (farmers) and masai (nomads) are an example from East Africa, hausa and fulani an example from West Africa. Find other regions of Africa on Countryaah.com.
The tsetse fly, which thrives in moist areas and spreads cattle disease asleep, sets the limit for cattle breeding in tropical Africa and thus also the limit for nomadic culture.
In northern Africa, where the savannah is replaced by the Sahel belt, there is a short rainy season and a long dry season; the rainfall is unstable and when it finally rains, it can be severe; the water flows into river beds that can be completely dried out during the dry season (wadier). The drier the area, the more dispersed the plant growth becomes; drought-resistant plants such as acacias are among the characteristic species in the semi-desert area, and grasses are mainly seen only during the rainy season. In this area, nomadism is widespread, sometimes combined with little farming.
Around the turning circles are Africa’s desert areas. The daytime temperatures are very high, but the nights can be cold. The evaporation is very large and the rainfall completely insufficient. Sahara in North Africa is the world’s largest desert (8-9 million km2); to the south lies Kalahari as a desert largely stabilized with plant growth. In the coastal areas where cold ocean currents are prevalent, the two deserts extend all the way to the sea. Hunters and collectors, such as the San people in Kalahari, and cattle and trade nomad groups, such as Tuareg in the Sahara, have lived for centuries in the desert areas. Where there is high groundwater, the nomads have their oases and wells. During the 1900-t. changed the terms of the nomads radically; Among other things, For example, their mobility has been restricted in competition with the farmers.