Berlin is not only the capital of the Federal Republic, but also a state, which has particular historical significance for Germany. The seat of government is in Berlin. Berlin is a city-state because it is a federal state made up of one city.
The city is an international metropolis with large more political meaning.
Berlin is also popular as a cosmopolitan city for culture,politics, Media and science. Numerous artists are at home here or have lived here in the past.
The region is also characterized by the fact that it is a traffic and logistics point for international trade and freight traffic. According to mcat-test-centers, the research institutes and universities enjoy an excellent reputation. In addition, there is a hub for the same international and national air traffic.
The history of Berlin
Berlin was mentioned quite late in history. The first mention comes from the year 1237 and here it is reported from the city of Cölln, i.e. Berlin-Cölln. Berlin was not mentioned in a document for the first time until 1244. What is certain, however, is that people must have lived here in much earlier times.
Cölln and Berlin merged into one city, and a town hall was built in 1307.
The areas of today’s Spandau and Köpenick already existed around 1157 and were inhabited by Slavic settlers. The city name Berlin goes back to the Slavic word “Berl” for swamp, because at that time there were large swamps in the area.
Throughout its history, Berlin has always been the capital. This is how the Hohenzollern family ruled here. But the Margrave of Brandenburg and the kings of Prussia also ruled. It was the German Kaiser who took control of Germany and thus also of Berlin.
The residents did not always agree with these rapid changes in power and there were also frequent protests and unrest.
The times of war also always left severe devastation and devastating consequences for the population. In the Thirty Years’ War, for example, more than a third of the houses were damaged and the population halved.
In 1671 50 Jewish families from Austria were invited to settle in Berlin. In 1685 a similar invitation followed through the Edict of Potsdam from Friedrich Wilhelm to the French. The French Huguenots came to Brandenburg. The 15,000 French reached the region, but only 6,000 stayed forever. In a document you can read that in 1700 around 20 percent of Berlin’s population consisted of French. Today you can still feel the cultural influence and see it in architectural structures and styles.
The First World War also left bad marks. In 1918 the republic was proclaimed in Berlin. After that, more and more cities were incorporated into the area of the capital.
Also in the Third Reich and during the second World War Berlin scene of bitter fighting and Zerbombungen was the Allies.
After the end of the Second World War, the occupying powers divided the urban areas among themselves. The western sector was under the United States, France and the British, while the eastern part was under the Soviet Union. The fronts between the western occupiers and the eastern occupiers hardened and the Cold War broke out. Berlin was also visually divided into two halves by a wall. This created what is now the former GDR in the east and the Federal Republic of Germany in the west, which moved its seat of government to Bonn. It was only after long efforts that Germany was reunified in 1990. The wall fell and Berlin was declared the capital again.
Area: 357,022 km² (of which land: 348,672 km², water area 8,350 km²)
Population: 81.5 million people (2011 estimate, CIA). Composition:German 91.5%, Turks 2.4%, others 6.1% (mainly Greeks, Italians, Poles, Russians, Serbo-Croats and Spaniards)
Population density: 228 people per km²
Population growth: -0.208% per year (2011, CIA)
Capital: Berlin (3.43 million residents, 2008)
Highest point: Zugspitze, 2,963 m
Lowest point: Neuendorf near Wilster, -3.54 m
Form of government: The Federal Republic of Germany has been a democratic-parliamentary federal state since 1949, the Basic Law dates from the same year. The Bundestag is the German houses of Parliament and is made up of 603 MPs. Elections take place every 4 years. The German federal states are represented by the Bundesrat. It is made up of 69 members; its approval is required for certain laws. The Federal Government under the Federal Chancellor exercises executive power. All federal states have their own constitutions. If laws do not fall within the competence of the federal government, the legislature (Landtag) and the government of the states can pass laws independently. On April 18, 1951, Germany was one of the founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community, which formed the core of what would later become the European Union (EU).
Administrative division: 16 countries: Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein andThuringia
Head of State: Federal President Joachim Gauck, since March 18, 2012
Head of Government: Chancellor Angela Merkel, since November 22, 2005
Language: the official language is German. There are also many regional dialects, some of which differ greatly from the standard German language. English is quite common as a foreign language. A Danish minority in northern Schleswig-Holstein speaks Danish, in Saxony and Brandenburg (Upper and Lower Lusatia) a Sorbian minority speaks Sorbian.
R eligion: Protestantisch 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, other or not religious 28.3%
Local time: CET. Between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October there is summer time in Germany (CET + 1 hour).
The time difference to Central Europe in both winter and summer 0 h.
International phone code: +49
Mains voltage: 230 V, 50 Hz