Burundi Border Map

Yearbook 2003

Burundi. Despite the ceasefire agreement signed by the government in December 2002 with the Democratic Defense Forces (FDD) and two smaller militia groups from the Hutu people, the unrest continued. The FDD and the army accused each other of violating the agreement and the second largest hutumilis National Liberation Forces (FNL) refused to negotiate with the government.

In January, at least 60,000 civilians fled in central B. after fighting between the army and the FDD. In March, the FDD accepted that foreign observers be sent to the country and at the end of April, the first contingent arrived from an African military peacekeeping force to monitor the peace agreement.

According to Countryaah.com, Burundi Independence Day is July 1. The two largest parties, the Hutud-dominated FRODEBU and the Tutsi UPRONA, signed a security-political cooperation agreement in March, which paved the way for the change of power which was a key issue in the 2001 agreement on a three-year transitional government. On April 30, Tutsier Pierre Buyoya handed the presidential post to FRODEBU’s leader Domitien Ndayizeye, who has been vice president since 2001. As new vice president for the next 18 months, Tutsier Alphonse Kadege, president of UPRONA, was appointed. At the same time, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission was formed to investigate all human rights violations since Burundi became independent in 1962.

The capital of Bujumbura was hit in July by the toughest fighting during the ten-year war when the FNL went on the offensive. For a week, nearly 400 people were killed before the army drove the rebels away. During the autumn, FNL was also involved in fighting with FDD. In early October, however, the FDD entered into a new agreement with the government. gave the Hutu organization several ministerial posts and seats in parliament. The FDD’s soldiers began to enlist in the army. The FNL was asked by the neighboring countries for the ultimatum to start negotiations within three months or “stand up”. But the group continued the violent act and was suspected, among other things. for the December assassination of the Vatican’s ambassador.

The international force of 2,700 men from South Africa, Ethiopia and Mozambique was complete in mid-October. In December, the UN Security Council decided in principle that the World Organization should take responsibility for it.

Despite all the peace efforts, Burundi was described by British business consulting firm Control Risks Group as one of the world’s three most dangerous countries.

Burundi Border Map