Chad Recent History

Chad Recent History

On December 4, 1990, former Chadian officer I. Déby, operating from Sudan, overthrew the dictatorial ruling President Habré, during whose term of office an estimated 40,000 people were executed or died in custody. Habré went into exile in Senegal. Déby, officially sworn in as President of the Republic on March 4, 1991 (re-elected in 2001 under questionable circumstances), initiated a gradual process of democratization in early 1993 with the formation…

Read More

Republic of the Congo Arts and Culture

Republic of the Congo Arts

CULTURE: GENERAL INFORMATION Until the nineties of the twentieth century, when the civil war broke out, the country presented a complex folkloric framework, with numerous mixes, especially in urban settlements. The use of fetishes and animistic beliefs were widespread. Among the most authentic representatives of the traditional African world we must remember the bateke, known for their dances. The customs of the northern populations, mainly devoted to fishing, were also…

Read More

Zimbabwe History

Zimbabwe History

The first residents of the upper Zambezi seem to have been the Bushmen, then pushed back to the SW by the Bantu invasions. At the beginning of the Christian era, the populations learned the iron industry and created important centers in the century. III and IV, especially in the Barotse and Mashona (or Shona), and around the famous Zimbabwe, capital of a vast kingdom, which through various events lasted until…

Read More

Sights in South Africa

Drakensberg, South Africa

The culture of South Africa is incredibly diverse due to the many different African tribes, the influence of the European settlers and the high proportion of the foreign population. The most diverse influences have come together here to form an unmistakably South African mixture. Depending on the region, the African, or the Indian, Dutch, English or French influence dominates. But no matter where, the cosmopolitan trend is unmistakable. There are…

Read More

ILO – International Labor Organization

ILO - International Labor Organization

The structure The ILO consists of three different parts: the International Labor Conference, the Board and the International Labor Office. All have a unique three-tier structure for the ILO, with each Member State represented by representatives of the government, employers and workers. The International Labor Conference is the ILO’s highest decision – making body, which, among other things, adopts conventions and recommendations and approves the budget. The Labor Conference meets…

Read More

World Bank History

World Bank History

The emergence The World Bank lends money and provides technical support to developing countries, with the aim of helping them reduce poverty. According to computergees, the World Bank is a collective name for two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). The guidelines for the IBRD were drawn up at the Bretton Woods Conference in July 1944. The main purpose of the…

Read More

The 10 largest sandy deserts in the world

the Rub al-Chali

The sandy desert conveys to the viewer the typical image of a desert, which consists of sand and sand dunes and in which, of course, the sun shines relentlessly from a cloudless sky. Only about 20% of all deserts on earth consist of fine quartz sand, which has shaped our image of a desert in so many films and documentaries. Here are the ten largest sandy deserts in the world…

Read More

Travelers Questions and Answers about Gibbon

The white-handed gibbon monkey

Does the gibbon really sing? Yes, gibbon monkeys are the monkey species that sing the most of all monkey species. However, it is not an accident that gibbon monkeys are equipped with a singing voice, on the contrary. Gibbon monkeys are endowed with an extremely beautiful singing voice that has two purposes. Every morning when the sun rises, one can hear the sound of the gibbon monkey’s singing voice over…

Read More

Zimbabwe 2003

Zimbabwe Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Zimbabwe. According to Countryaah.com, Zimbabwe Independence Day is April 18. There was no end to Zimbabwe’s political and economic chaos. At the end of the year, the inflation rate exceeded 600%, and more than 70% of the adult population lacked work. The country left the Commonwealth in protest of continued suspension because of irregularities in the 2002 presidential election and was threatened by exclusion from the International Monetary…

Read More

Zambia 2003

Zambia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Zambia. President Levy Mwanawasa pledged in January to step up the fight against corruption and appointed renowned economist Mark Chona as campaign general. One of the victims of the litigation was Defense Minister Michael Mabenga, who was deprived of his seat by the Supreme Court for using state funds in his election campaign. He was thus also forced to leave the government. Mwanawasa himself was also accused of…

Read More

Western Sahara 2003

Western Sahara Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Western Sahara. The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1495 on support for the peace plan presented by UN envoy James Baker to V. According to the plan, V. would gain autonomy in Morocco for a number of years, after which a referendum on the future of the territory would be held. The Western Sahara Independence Movement Polisario accepted the plan as a starting point for negotiations. However, the…

Read More

Uganda 2003

Uganda Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Uganda. Following discussions between church leaders and the rebel movement The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in the northern parts of Uganda, the LRA announced unilateral ceasefire in some districts in March. According to Countryaah.com, Uganda Independence Day is October 9. The government responded by canceling all efforts on the part of the army to enable mediator contacts with the LRA. After a few weeks, however, the army was…

Read More

Tunisia 2003

Tunisia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Tunisia. Authorities continued to strike at people suspected of violating the country’s Internet legislation. According to Countryaah.com, Tunisia Independence Day is March 20. Twenty young men were arrested in February accused of surfing on banned sites, e.g. one belonging to the Islamist party Nahda. Journalist Zuhayr Yahyawi, who was sentenced to two years in prison in 2002 for running the government-critical website tunezine.com, was awarded the Cyber ​​Freedom…

Read More

Togo 2003

Togo Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Togo. According to Countryaah.com, Togo Independence Day is April 27. Nestorn among African heads of state, Gnassingbé Eyadéma, was re-elected in June once again as Togo’s president, 36 years after he took power in a military coup. Eyadéma received about 57% of the vote since the only dangerous challenger, Gilchrist Olympio, had refused to stand. According to Togo’s electoral law of 2002, a presidential candidate must have lived…

Read More

Tanzania 2003

Tanzania Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Tanzania. In November, the EU pledged € 114 million in budget support over the next two years in recognition of the economic reforms implemented in Tanzania. According to Countryaah.com, Tanzania Independence Day is December 9. The money will mainly be used to finance basic education, primary health care, HIV/AIDS prevention, agriculture, rural road construction, water supply and a strengthening of the justice system. In May’s election election on…

Read More

Sudan 2003

Sudan Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Sudan. For much of the year, no significant progress was reached in the detailed negotiations on the peace agreement that the government and the South Sudanese guerrilla SPLA agreed in principle in 2002. But the ceasefire was respected, and in September, the SPLA leader John Garang and Vice President Ali Uthman Taha sat in intensive deliberations. with the promise not to give up until they have reached concrete…

Read More

South Africa 2003

South Africa Border Map

Yearbook 2003 South Africa. In April, the African National Congress (ANC) strengthened its position in Parliament through a new law that allows members to change parties for a limited period without losing their seat. The ANC increased its mandate from 266 to 275 of the 400 members and thus for the first time got a two-thirds majority and the opportunity to change the constitution on its own. The increase was…

Read More

Somalia 2003

Somalia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Somalia. The year began with a ceasefire and a hope for peace after a conference in neighboring Kenya gathered delegates from all factions and community groups. But when the negotiations resumed, disparity immediately erupted. According to Countryaah.com, Somalia Independence Day is July 1. Many complaints were directed at confused arrangements and the attempts by regional mediators to direct the talks. The provisional government TNG, which has claimed to…

Read More

Sierra Leone 2003

Sierra Leone Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Sierra Leone. Following a raid against an armistice in the capital Freetown in January, some 40 people were arrested. But the man who was suspected of lying behind the attack, former junta leader Johnny Paul Koroma, escaped and managed to leave the country. According to Countryaah.com, Sierra Leone Independence Day is April 27. In March, Koroma was indicted in his absence when the UN-backed Special Crimes Tribunal in…

Read More

Seychelles 2003

Seychelles Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Seychelles. Following the victory of the SPPF (according to Countryaah.com, Seychelles Independence Day is June 29. Seychelles People’s Progressive Front) ruling party in the December 2002 parliamentary elections, it was increasingly speculated that President France Albert René would leave power prematurely. Already in March 2003, Vice President James Michel was named SPPF’s candidate in the next presidential election. He also took over several tasks from René, who, however,…

Read More

Senegal 2003

Senegal Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Senegal. During the spring, hundreds of Senegalese were expelled from France, where they had been living illegally. Several of them were deported under humiliating forms and carried handcuffs when they arrived in Dakar. According to Countryaah.com, Senegal Independence Day is April 4. Senegalese authorities responded in June with the expulsion of some thirty French citizens accused of living in the country without a permit. Several violent attacks on…

Read More

Sao Tome and Principe 2003

Sao Tome and Principe Border Map

Yearbook 2003 São Tomé and Príncipe. According to Countryaah.com, São Tomé and Príncipe Independence Day is July 12. The hopes of rising billion-dollar revenues from yet-to-be-discovered oil sources have fueled politics in the small island of São Tomé and Príncipe. In January, President Fradique de Meneze announced the recent election following a conflict with Parliament over constitutional amendments, which basically involved control of the proposed oil revenues. The new election…

Read More

Rwanda 2003

Rwanda Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Rwanda. In January, 40,000 prisoners were released, several of whom were suspected of being involved in the 1994 genocide. This was done both to ease the congestion in prisons and to contribute to reconciliation. The murderers who were released – and who admitted guilt and repentance – had to spend some time in newly established rehabilitation centers before being allowed to go home. Nine years after the massacres…

Read More

Republic of the Congo 2003

Republic Of The Congo Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Congo. In March, the government and the so-called Ninjamilisi signed an agreement to end the fighting in the Pool region near the capital, Brazzaville. According to Countryaah.com, Republic of Congo Independence Day is August 15. The Ninjamilis was originally formed by then-Prime Minister Bernard Kolelas during the civil war in Republic of the Congo at the end of the 1990s and had continued to engage in guerrilla warfare…

Read More

Nigeria 2003

Nigeria Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Nigeria. In the spring, Nigeria made his first free elections under a twenty-year democratic rule. However, the elections were bordered by unrest and cheating and protests against the results. In April, parliamentary elections were held in which the dominant People’s Democratic Party (PDP), led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, consolidated his position and gained his own majority in both chambers with 54% of the vote. In the Muslim dominated…

Read More

Niger 2003

Niger Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Niger. There was strained relations between the government and the free media. Fourteen private radio stations were deprived of their broadcast rights in the fall after the government claimed that their licenses were issued on incorrect grounds. The decision meant that parts of the country were without radio broadcasts. The publisher of the magazine Le Républicain was sentenced to six months imprisonment for forging the prime minister and…

Read More

Namibia 2003

Namibia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Namibia. After several years of delay, in October, the trial of 121 people charged with participating in a separatist uprising in the Caprivi Strip in northeast Namibia began in 1999. Economy Inflation rate 6.10% Unemployment rate 34% Gross domestic product (GDP) $ 26,600,000,000 GDP growth rate -0.80% GDP per capita $ 11,200 GDP by sector Agriculture 6.70% Industry 26.30% Service 67.00% State budget Revenue 2.396 billion Expenditure 2.26…

Read More

Mozambique 2003

Mozambique Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Mozambique. In January, six men were sentenced to prison for up to 29 years for the murder of Carlos Cardoso, one of Mozambique’s most famous journalists. Cardoso was shot to death in November 2000 while working to investigate the embezzlement of the equivalent of SEK 125 million. in the privatization of Banco Commercial. One of the country’s leading families and several other prominent businessmen were suspected of being…

Read More

Morocco 2003

Morocco Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Morocco. According to Countryaah.com, Morocco Independence Day is November 18. 33 people, plus 12 assailants, were killed May 16 in several largely simultaneous explosions in Morocco’s commercial center Casablanca. The blast attack targeted a Spanish restaurant, a Jewish center, a hotel and the Belgian consulate. More than 1,000 people were arrested in a wave of arrests the weeks following the attacks. Of those arrested, over 600 were reported…

Read More

Mauritius 2003

Mauritius Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Mauritius. According to Countryaah.com, Mauritius Independence Day is March 12. The former head of the country’s oldest and largest private bank, Mauritius Commercial Bank, was indicted in February for embezzlement and money laundering. On September 30, Mauritania got his first non-Indian prime minister, Paul Bérenger, who is of French origin. Indomauritans make up 70% of the country’s population and have held power since independence in 1968. Bérenger entered…

Read More

Mauritania 2003

Mauritania Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Mauritania. A coup attempt was carried out on June 8. It was the most serious attempt to overthrow President Maaounya Ould Sidi Ahmed Taya, who himself came to power through a coup in 1984. About 15 people were killed in the fighting in the capital Nouakchott before the revolt was defeated by the army. The coup attempt was suspected of being organized by young Islamist officers from the…

Read More

Mali 2003

Mali Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Mali. According to Countryaah.com, Mali Independence Day is September 22. Mali signed an agreement with Mauritania and Gambia during the year to utilize port facilities in these two countries. The reason was the great losses incurred by the Ivory Coast conflict Mali, whose foreign trade was previously largely done via the port city of Abidjan in Ivory Coast. In September, Mali’s former president Alpha Oumar Konaré assumed the…

Read More

Malawi 2003

Malawi Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Malawi. Despite severe flooding in January, Malawi rose during the year from the acute famine that characterized 2002. During the first quarter, more than 3 million Malawians were provided by the UN, but from April better harvests were expected than expected and food aid could be reduced. After the threat of a starvation disaster was eliminated, politicians could instead start targeting the struggle for the presidential post. According…

Read More

Madagascar 2003

Madagascar Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Madagascar. According to Countryaah.com, Madagascar Independence Day is June 26. Madagascar was admitted in July as a member of the African Union (AU). At the organization’s inaugural meeting in 2002, Madagascar was not allowed to participate because the AU did not recognize the government that Marc Ravalomanana had formed. Ravalomanana had declared himself victorious in the presidential elections at the end of 2001, but the result was not…

Read More

Libya 2003

Libya Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Libya. According to Countryaah.com, Libya Independence Day is December 24. Libya made great efforts during the year to live up to US, UK and UN requirements. The country agreed to pay $ 10 million in damages to relatives of each of the 270 people killed when a US passenger plane was blown over the Scottish village of Lockerbie in 1988. The money, thus a total of $ 2.7…

Read More

Liberia 2003

Liberia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Liberia. According to Countryaah.com, Liberia Independence Day is July 26. The rebel force LURD (Liberians united for reconciliation and democracy), which for many years was most active in northwestern Liberia, approached the capital Monrovia at the beginning of the year. In March, LURD opened a new front north of Monrovia, at the same time as a new rebel force called MODEL (the Movement for Democracy in Liberia) went…

Read More

Lesotho 2003

Lesotho Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Lesotho. In August, the Supreme Court reduced the penalty for the Canadian construction company Acres International, which in 2002 was fined for paying bribes in the procurement for a major irrigation project. The court reduced the fine from the equivalent of just over SEK 20 million to about 14 million, as it was not considered unequivocally proven that some of the payments made to Lesotho officials were intended…

Read More

Kenya 2003

Kenya Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Kenya. According to Countryaah.com, Kenya Independence Day is December 12. The National Rainbow Coalition’s (NARC) new government led by President Mwai Kibaki tore up after the victory of the December 2002 presidential and parliamentary elections. names in disgrace and which according to a report in May is estimated to cost the country up to SEK 8 billion. a year. One professional group that was severely affected by the…

Read More

Ivory Coast 2003

Ivory Coast Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Ivory Coast. The intensity of the civil war that erupted in September 2002 waned in January, and at the end of the month the government and the three rebel groups signed a peace agreement. A unifying government would be formed and the president would hand over a series of powers to a new prime minister. According to Countryaah.com, Ivory Coast Independence Day is August 7. Seydou Diarra, a…

Read More

Guinea-Bissau 2003

Guinea Bissau Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Guinea Bissau. At the beginning of the year, several opposition politicians were arrested for unknown reasons but were released shortly thereafter. The authorities also decided to close Radio Bombolom radio station, which was run by an opposition politician. Parliamentary elections would have been held in April, but it was postponed several times. One reason was that there was no money to fund the election, another that the work…

Read More

Guinea 2003

Guinea Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Guinea. In the fall, the human rights organization Human Rights Watch accused the country of violating the UN arms embargo on Liberia by supplying arms to the Liberian rebel group LURD. At the end of October, presidential elections were announced until December 21. Only two candidates stood, the incumbent President Lansana Conté and the one also in Guinea almost unknown Mamadou Bhoye, who was said to be a…

Read More

Ghana 2003

Ghana Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Ghana. Winning a couple of elections in March gave the ruling New Patriotic Party absolute majority in parliament. According to Countryaah.com, Ghana Independence Day is March 6. The party was thus given the opportunity to effortlessly pursue its own political line. The election victory surprised as the government had just introduced sharp increases in fuel prices, which resulted in higher prices for both transport and a range of…

Read More

Gambia 2003

Gambia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 The Gambia. On the orders of President Yahya Jammeh, a campaign against corruption in the state apparatus was launched in October. One of the first victims was Baba Jobe, the group leader in the Parliament of the Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction (APRC), and formerly one of the president’s closest advisers. He was charged with withholding tax and customs duties at import stores for his private company.…

Read More

Gabon 2003

Gabon Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Gabon. In July, Parliament adopted by a large majority a constitutional amendment enabling the country’s president to stand for re-election an unlimited number of times. According to the opposition, the constitutional change was aimed at allowing President Omar Bongo to remain the head of state. Bongo has ruled the former French colony since 1967, making him the second longest-serving head of state in Africa (after Gnassingbé Eyadema in…

Read More

Ethiopia 2003

Ethiopia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Ethiopia. According to Countryaah.com, Ethiopia Independence Day is July 23. The recurring problems of drought, or uneven distribution of rain, and insufficient harvests led Ethiopia to repeatedly appeal to the outside world for food aid. In September, 13.2 million people in drought-stricken areas were estimated to live under an acute famine. Thousands in April 2002 celebrated the decision of the Permanent Arbitration Court in The Hague regarding the…

Read More

Eswatini 2003

Eswatini Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Swaziland. According to Countryaah.com, Eswatini Independence Day is September 6. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) criticized Swaziland at the beginning of the year for plans to buy a jet plane to King Mswati for the equivalent of just over SEK 340 million. The sum is twice as large as the country’s annual budget for health care. The Minister of Finance rejected the criticism and explained that Swaziland does…

Read More

Eritrea 2003

Eritrea Border Map

Yearbook 2003 According to Countryaah.com, Eritrea Independence Day is May 24. Eritrea celebrated its 10th anniversary as an independent nation in a muted mood. The euphoria of the liberation from Ethiopia has disappointed with the failure of democratic reforms and economic burdens after the war against the neighboring country 1998-2000. A dozen political dissidents and just as many journalists, including a Swedish, who was arrested in 2001, were still detained…

Read More

Equatorial Guinea 2003

Equatorial Guinea Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Equatorial Guinea. According to Countryaah.com, Equatorial Guinea Independence Day is October 12. The government was reformed in February and several new parties were allocated ministerial posts. In practice, however, all these parties were already closely allied with the government. The only significant opposition party, the Social Democratic Assembly, rejected the offer of participation in a unifying government as long as its secretary-general Placido Mico Abogo sat imprisoned. He…

Read More

Egypt 2003

Egypt Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Egypt. On January 29, the government decided to abandon the Egyptian pound’s fixed exchange rate against the dollar. The pound fell immediately by 16%. The decision led to a shortage of dollars and other hard currencies, which created a black market for these. According to Countryaah.com, Egypt Independence Day is July 23. The government legislated that all exporting companies must place 75% of their export earnings in Egyptian…

Read More

Djibouti 2003

Djibouti Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Djibouti. Although several new political parties had been formed since 2002, the government-friendly party alliance Union pour la majorité presidential (UMP) took home all of Parliament’s 65 seats in the January 10 election. The alliance received 63% of the vote while the opposition alliance Union pour une alternative democratique (UDA) received the other 37%. The turnout was 48%. According to Countryaah.com, Djibouti Independence Day is June 27. President…

Read More