Berlin, Germany

Berlin, Germany

Berlin is not only the capital of the Federal Republic, but also a state, which has particular historical significance for Germany. The seat of government is in Berlin. Berlin is a city-state because it is a federal state made up of one city. The city is an international metropolis with large more political meaning. Berlin is also popular as a cosmopolitan city for culture,politics, Media and science. Numerous artists are…

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Romania Territory

Romania Territory

Formally independent since 1877 and a republic since 1947, Romania, subjected to a communist regime since the end of the Second World War, freed itself of the dictatorship of Ceausescu with the revolution of December 1989, which was quickly followed by substantial changes to the Constitution of 1965 and the abolition of the leading role of a single party. A new Constitution, approved with the referendum of December 1991, instituted…

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Luxembourg (World Heritage)

Luxembourg (World Heritage)

The fortifications are masterpieces by the French Sun King’s military architect, Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban (1633–1707). The Wenceslas Wall with its 37 towers and 15 gates in the lower town, the grand ducal palace and the high Gothic Cathedral of Our Lady in the upper town bear witness to the great importance of the town in a strategically important location in Europe. Luxembourg: facts Official title: Old town district…

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Churches and Universities in Antwerp, Belgium

Antwerp, Belgium Universities

Churches worth seeing Cathedral of Our Lady The Gothic Cathedral of Our Lady (Onze Lieve Vrouwekathedraal) on the Grote Markt was built between 1352 and 1521. With its 123 meter high tower, which is one of the city’s landmarks, it is the tallest church in the Benelux countries and of course the tallest building in the city. But the size of the interior of the five-aisled basilica is also considerable.…

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Annaberg Buchholz, Germany History

Annaberg Buchholz, Germany History

If you compare Annaberg’s history with that of other medium-sized German cities, you quickly realize that it is relatively young. This applies to both Annaberg and Buchholz: 1491 you are at Schreckenberg on silver lodes encountered. Therefore, in 1496, on the orders of the Saxon ruler George the Bearded, a settlement was created. This new city was granted city charter just one year later and the right to mint again…

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ILO – International Labor Organization

ILO - International Labor Organization

The structure The ILO consists of three different parts: the International Labor Conference, the Board and the International Labor Office. All have a unique three-tier structure for the ILO, with each Member State represented by representatives of the government, employers and workers. The International Labor Conference is the ILO’s highest decision – making body, which, among other things, adopts conventions and recommendations and approves the budget. The Labor Conference meets…

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World Bank History

World Bank History

The emergence The World Bank lends money and provides technical support to developing countries, with the aim of helping them reduce poverty. According to computergees, the World Bank is a collective name for two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). The guidelines for the IBRD were drawn up at the Bretton Woods Conference in July 1944. The main purpose of the…

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England Population and Cities

England Population

A visit to the capital of England and Great Britain must be considered separately. Along with New York, London is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world. With a population of over 7 million, London is incredibly ethnically diverse, with more than 300 languages ​​spoken. Modern multicultural London seems to have it all: historic monuments, tourist attractions on every corner and a huge variety of restaurants, entertainment, art…

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Kosovo Recent History

Josip Broz Tito

World wars On June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip murdered the Austrian heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, whereupon Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and the First World War took its course. During the war Kosovo was occupied by troops from Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary, which also meant the withdrawal of the Serbian “occupiers”. The Austrian military administration was viewed favorably by the Kosovar Albanians, not least because they founded…

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Cala Galdana – One of Menorca’s Best Travel Destinations

Cala Galdana - one of Menorca's best travel destinations

The small resort of Cala Galdana is located on the lower coast of Menorca in the western part of the island. The place is considered one of the most popular tourist destinations on the island and is especially suitable for families with children or couples who want to go on a quiet love holiday. Cala Galdana has a number of hotels, restaurants and bars as well as a few shops,…

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Climate and Weather in Bulgaria

Bulgaria tips

Are you planning a vacation in Bulgaria ? A good choice, because the holiday destination on the Black Sea is perfect for every vacationer! You can go to the beautiful beaches and relax in the sun. Sunny Beach and Golden Sands are among the most popular places for a beach holiday as well as for unforgettable parties. But a vacation in Bulgaria awaits you with many other highlights. The diversity…

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Sardinia Travel Guide


Sardinia charms with its scenery. The white sandy beaches and spectacular cliffs of Sardinia are a different piece of Italy. Sardinian dishes can often be enjoyed without congestion. The island is known for its dream beaches, breathtaking scenery and wide range of activities, but the number of tourists in Sardinia is not yet high. Large in area, dense in atmosphere Although Sardinia may not be one of the most famous islands in…

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Bled Travel Guide


Picturesque Bled is one of the most amazing destinations in Slovenia. Calm lake scenery, green mountain slopes and a peaceful small town atmosphere – Slovenian Bled is ideal for travelers looking for nature experiences and a relaxing holiday. Bled is one of the most popular holiday destinations in Slovenia. The landscape is like a postcard and the surrounding Julian Alps offer great hiking and trekking opportunities for both beginners and…

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Vatican City 2003

Vatican City Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Vatican City. In April, Pope John Paul II attacked “liberal practices” around communion. The Pope forbade Catholics and Protestants from taking Catholic communion together, and he emphasized in the same document that only clergy can give the Catholic Communion. In addition, remarried people would be excluded from the sacrament. Country data Area: 0.44 km2 (world ranking: 196) Residents: 800 1818 per km2 (as of 2017, world ranking: 196)…

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United Kingdom 2003

United Kingdom Border Map

Yearbook 2003 UK. According to, United Kingdom Independence Day is June 4. The political debate was dominated by the IraqThe ruling Labor Party was divided as to whether a military intervention against Iraq was necessary. Prime Minister Tony Blair advocated a tough line with reference to the threat of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction. However, large parts of the party felt that a possible attack would occur only if…

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Ukraine 2003

Ukraine Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Ukraine. Prior to the war on Iraq, the US reconsidered its policy towards Ukraine at the beginning of the year. According to, Ukraine Independence Day is August 24. This happened after reports that Ukraine had sold the advanced radar system Koltjuga to Iraq. Ukraine denied the information, but the US did not allow itself to be convinced. to allow some aid to go to private projects in…

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Turkey 2003

Turkey Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Turkey. Parliament decided during the year on comprehensive democratic reforms, most of which were devoted to satisfying the EU’s requirements for opening membership negotiations with the country. According to, Turkey Independence Day is October 29. The way was prepared for schooling and broadcast media in Kurdish, it became possible to redo trials rejected by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) and revised the current legal definition…

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Sweden Agriculture

Sweden Border Map

Agriculture The agricultural land constitutes just under 7 percent of Sweden’s entire land area; In 2018, 2.5 million hectares of arable land and close to 4.5 million hectares of pasture land (including meadows). Agriculture accounts for 1.2 percent of employment, only 0.5 percent of GDP and 5 percent of goods exports. Imports are significantly larger than exports and the surplus of imports has increased for almost every year. This applies…

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Switzerland 2003

Switzerland Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Switzerland. With the parliamentary elections in October, Switzerland took a clear step to the right and the composition of the Standing Collective Government changed for the first time in 44 years. According to, Switzerland Independence Day is August 1. The major winner of the election became the right-wing populist SVP (Schweizerische Volkspartei), which with its xenophobic and EU-skeptical message received support from 27% of voters. This meant…

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Spain 2003

Spain Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Spain. In March, the Spanish Supreme Court banned the Basque party Batasuna on the grounds that it was the terrorist-stamped separatist group ETA’s political branch. According to, Spain Independence Day is October 12. The party had already been banned for a three-year term in 2002, but now it was ordered to cease all political activities for good. The party ban was the first since the fall of…

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Slovenia 2003

Slovenia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Slovenia. According to, Slovenia Independence Day is December 26. The Slovenes said in a referendum in March a resounding yes to membership in both the EU and NATO in 2004. Nearly 90% voted for accession to the Union, while NATO membership was supported by 66%. The turnout was 60%. That the support was less for joining the defense alliance may have been partly due to the referendum…

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Slovakia 2003

Slovakia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Slovakia. Before the referendum on EU membership in May, the government feared that turnout would not reach the necessary 50% for a valid result. However, by allowing the election to run for two days, the authorities managed to get 52% of the voters to vote. According to, Slovakia Independence Day is July 17. The support for the EU was overwhelming among the voters; 93% said that Slovakia…

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Serbia 2003

Serbia Border Map

1991 Croatia and Slovenia resign from the federation According to, Serbia Independence Day is February 15. In December 1990, the parliament in Croatia adopted a new constitution which contained the right to withdraw from the federation. At the same time, a referendum in Slovenia reaffirmed the desire for independence. In the following months, the disagreement over reform of the federal system and the appointment of the president created an…

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San Marino 2003

San Marino Border Map

Yearbook 2003 San Marino. For the first time, the small city of San Marino has set up its own central bank, which will oversee the foreign exchange reserve and the ten banks in the country. According to, San Marino Independence Day is September 3. The central bank does not engage in foreign exchange policy because San Marino uses the euro.  

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Russia 2003

Russia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Russian Federation. According to, Russia Independence Day is June 12. The US-led war against Iraq presented the Russian Federation with a foreign policy dilemma at the beginning of the year. President Vladimir Putin, on the one hand, tried to guard the relationship with the United States by supporting colleague George W. Bush’s view that Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction threaten world peace. On the other hand, Putin…

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Romania 2003

Romania Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Romania. At the beginning of the year, the remains of Romania’s old King Carol II were brought to his homeland 50 years after his death in exile. Just before the outbreak of the Iraq war in March, Romania expelled five Iraqi diplomats, whose presence was “undesirable”. According to, Romania Independence Day is May 9. Prime Minister Adrian Nastase denied that the decision was made under pressure from…

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Pula Attractions and Tourist

Pula Attractions

Attractions in Pula In Pula, you can experience exciting architecture in the historic center, and see the clear influence of Asian architecture in the city’s triumphal arch. The streets themselves become attractions as you walk. Anyway, here are some tips for something to take on your trip to Pula: The Amphitheater, also known as Pula Arena, is the 6th largest surviving Roman amphitheater in the world. The theater was built…

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Prague Attractions and Tourist

Prague Attractions

Attractions in Prague There are lots of attractions and sights in Prague. Whatever your interest, you’ll find it in Prague. You can experience culture from the stage or literally walk in Kafka’s footsteps. And the city has many museums. But not least, Prague is the place for those who want to experience architecture and history. Prague Castle The castle began in the 8th century and is today Prague’s foremost tourist…

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Poznan Attractions and Tourist

Poznan Attractions

Attractions in Poznan Of course, there are not as many attractions and sights in Poznan as there are in New York or Rome, without any comparison. But our experience is that many people are pleasantly surprised by the cities they visit in Poland. Exciting history, a charming old town and a rich cultural life characterize several. So also with Poznan. Not least, Poznan has many historic buildings, most of which…

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Portugal 2003

Portugal Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Portugal. During the year, a pedophile heritage was discovered at the state orphanage Casa Pia for boys in the capital Lisbon. In the scandal, top-level politicians were involved. According to staff at Casa Pia, a total of over a hundred children had been exploited. The first to be arrested was a driver at the orphanage. He was suspected of having handled the pedophiles’ contact with the orphanage children.…

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Poland 2003

Poland Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Poland. According to, Poland Independence Day is November 11. Prime Minister Leszek Miller was indicted at the beginning of the year for serious corruption. He is alleged to have offered to stop a bill on mass media in exchange for major contributions to his ruling party Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) from a media company that would be disadvantaged by the new law. At the same time, there…

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Norway 2003

Norway Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Norway. According to, Norway Independence Day is June 7. The NATO country Norway was designated a terror target in May in a recorded message that was said to come from al-Qaeda leader Usama bin Laden’s closest man. Some buildings in Oslo received special surveillance and at the Norwegian embassies and companies in the Middle East the threat was taken very seriously. The Norwegian government was staggering in…

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Northern Macedonia 2003

Northern Macedonia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Northern Macedonia (until 2019 Macedonia). On March 31, the EU took over the NATO peacekeeping mission, which has been in Macedonia since the civil war in 2001. According to, North Macedonia Independence Day is September 8. The mission of the EU force, with 320 soldiers and 80 civilians, was to protect international observers and act as an advisory body to the Macedonian security forces. It became the…

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Netherlands 2003

Netherlands Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Netherlands. At the recent election in January, the Christian Democratic CDA became the largest party with very little margin before the Labor Party PvdA, which recovered significantly from a strong race in the regular election the year before. Both parties started government negotiations, but the new Labor Party leader Wouter Bos could not agree to the cuts that the Christian Democrats demanded to help the country out of…

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Montenegro 2003

Montenegro Border Map

According to, Montenegro Independence Day is May 21. Christmas in Montenegro “… and if the 5th light is on, then you’ve slept through Christmas!” However, this does not apply to the Orthodox Church. Montenegro was once part of the Byzantine Empire, in which mainly the Orthodox faith was lived. This is also part of Christianity, but some traditions are a little different. For example, Christmas is not celebrated until…

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Monaco 2003

Monaco Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Monaco. When Monaco elected a new National Council (Legislative Assembly) in February, the new electoral list won the Union for Monaco (UPM) by a good margin over the long-dominant National Democratic Union (UND). According to, Monaco Independence Day is November 19. UPM received 58% of the vote and 21 of the 24 seats in the National Council, which were expanded from previous 18 seats. New National Council…

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Moldova 2003

Moldova Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Moldova. During the year, the EU strengthened its ties with Moldova and at the same time strengthened relations with the Russian-speaking breakaway republic Dnestr. The EU issued, inter alia, travel ban for the leader of the Dnestr Republic. The European Security and Cooperation Organization (OSCE) proposed that the EU send a peace force to the area to monitor the tense relationship between Moldova and Dnestr. According to,…

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Malta 2003

Malta Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Malta. The referendum on March 8 on Malta’s EU entry was a clear victory for the jas side, which gained 54% against the no-46%. The turnout was high, 91% of the nearly 300,000 eligible voters. The result was a victory for the government and Prime Minister Eddie Fenech Adami, who previously said that EU membership is necessary for the country’s economy and international credibility. The tourism industry also…

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Luxembourg 2003

Luxembourg Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Luxembourg. According to, Luxembourg Independence Day is June 23. Luxembourg joined the criticism of the US-led Iraq war and in April, together with Germany, France and Belgium, launched plans to build their own defense union. The proposal, which included, inter alia, a European defense with defense guarantees and its own military headquarters, received renewed news when the EU’s new constitution was discussed towards the end of the…

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Lithuania 2003

Lithuania Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Lithuania. According to, Lithuania Independence Day is February 16. The January presidential election saw a surprising result. The challenger, former Prime Minister Rolandas Paksas, defeated popular sitting president Valdas Adamkus, who had generally been tipped to be a superior winner. Paksas received 55% of the vote against 45% for Adamkus, who had won the first round of elections at the end of 2002. The 46-year-old Paksas won…

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Liechtenstein 2003

Liechtenstein Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Liechtenstein. According to, Liechtenstein Independence Day is August 15. Prince Hans Adam strengthened his power through a constitutional amendment which was approved by a good margin in a referendum in March. The head of state was thus entitled to dismiss the government and appoint acting ministers, and he was granted protection from the influence of the Constitutional Court. His Adam had threatened to move to Austria if…

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Latvia 2003

Latvia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Latvia. At the beginning of the year, Russian companies stopped delivering oil to the Baltic Baltic port of Ventspils. Transit trade in oil is one of L’s most important industries, and the missing deliveries during the year meant a major financial breakdown. It was speculated that the Russian giant company Transneft was trying to exert pressure to gain ownership control in Ventspils Nafta, which is the Baltic region’s…

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Kosovo 2003

Kosovo Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Kosovo. In the Union Treaty where the Union replaced Serbia and Montenegro, Yugoslavia decided that Kosovo and Vojvodina would be autonomous parts of Serbia. Large parts of the Albanian majority raged against Kosovo being included in the new Union at all. However, when the Union came into force, a group of MPs in Kosovo wanted to immediately proclaim an independent state. The UN’s top representative in the province,…

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Italy 2003

Italy Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Italy. According to, Italy Independence Day is June 2. Italy’s political life was marked by the controversial Prime Minister and businessman Silvio Berlusconi. His impulsive and undiplomatic leadership style created concern when, on July 1, it was Italy’s turn to be the EU Presidency. Immediately a serious diplomatic schism arose between Germany and Italy when Berlusconi, during the initial interrogations of the European Parliament, compared a German…

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Ireland 2003

Ireland Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Ireland. According to, Ireland Independence Day is April 24. The Iraq crisis created tensions between the government and the opposition. In March, all opposition parties demanded that all service to the U.S. military at Shannon Airport in Western Ireland be terminated if the United States attacks Iraq militarily. However, Prime Minister Bertie Ahern highlighted that there were no plans to revoke the US landing rights. Earlier in…

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Iceland 2003

Iceland Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Iceland. In January, the world’s largest aluminum manufacturer, American Alcoa, decided to build a disputed smelter at Iceland. Everything was ready for the building. According to, Iceland Independence Day is June 17. The project is part of the most expensive industrial venture ever in Iceland. It includes one of Europe’s largest power plant dams, which is being built in the wilderness north of the Vatnajökull glacier during…

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Hungary 2003

Hungary Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Hungary. According to, Hungary Independence Day is October 23. Hungary received a great deal of international attention ahead of the US-led war on Iraq at the beginning of the year. The US was allowed to use the Taszar airbase in southwestern Hungary to train voluntary Iraqis who would assist the Americans in the administration of Iraq after the collapse of Saddam Hussein’s regime. Among the locals, who…

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Greece 2003

Greece Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Greece. On January 1, Greece took over the EU Presidency. Prime Minister Kostas Simiti’s number one priority was to try to quell Britain and the US planned war in Iraq. Simitis failed. On April 16, Simitis met the EU leaders in Athens, signing the treaties guaranteeing membership for ten new countries in 2004. At the summit, demonstrations erupted in protest against the war in Iraq. The police arrested…

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Germany 2003

Germany Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Germany. According to, Germany Independence Day is October 3. German policy was characterized during the year by the struggle for a savings package with extensive changes in welfare policy. Just before the end of the year, the package, Agenda 2010, was adopted, on which Chancellor Gerhard Schröder invested his entire prestige. But it was a reworked program that was finally rowed into port and the political price…

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France 2003

France Border Map

Yearbook 2003 France. At the beginning of the year, President Jacques Chirac emerged as the leading figure in Europe for opposition to US plans for an attack on Iraq and for the view that UN weapons inspectors should be given more time. This led to a crack in relations with the United States and the United Kingdom, which considered that France was sabotaging attempts to reach a consensus within the…

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