Gold Coast, Australia

Gold Coast, Australia

General information The excavations of scientists have shown that as early as 23 thousand years ago, people lived on the territory of the modern Gold Coast. Europeans began to settle here at the beginning of the 19th century, and the development of the region as a tourist center began in the 20s of the last century. Many years have passed since then, and today we know the Gold Coast as…

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ILO – International Labor Organization

ILO - International Labor Organization

The structure The ILO consists of three different parts: the International Labor Conference, the Board and the International Labor Office. All have a unique three-tier structure for the ILO, with each Member State represented by representatives of the government, employers and workers. The International Labor Conference is the ILO’s highest decision – making body, which, among other things, adopts conventions and recommendations and approves the budget. The Labor Conference meets…

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World Bank History

World Bank History

The emergence The World Bank lends money and provides technical support to developing countries, with the aim of helping them reduce poverty. According to computergees, the World Bank is a collective name for two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). The guidelines for the IBRD were drawn up at the Bretton Woods Conference in July 1944. The main purpose of the…

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The 10 largest sandy deserts in the world

the Rub al-Chali

The sandy desert conveys to the viewer the typical image of a desert, which consists of sand and sand dunes and in which, of course, the sun shines relentlessly from a cloudless sky. Only about 20% of all deserts on earth consist of fine quartz sand, which has shaped our image of a desert in so many films and documentaries. Here are the ten largest sandy deserts in the world…

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Auckland Travel Guide


Auckland is a green and comfortable city destination. Auckland, New Zealand’s largest city, can’t boast great attractions, but the greenery and cozy atmosphere make many fall in love with this multicultural city. The maritime city is delightful Auckland is located in the northern part of the North Island of New Zealand. The sea surrounds the city from many directions, and many of Auckland’s attractions are connected in one way or…

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Vanuatu 2003

Vanuatu Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Vanuatu. In May, the OECD removed Vanuatu from the black list of tax havens since the country improved its control over its tax system. In November, Prime Minister Edward Natapei of Vanuaaku Pati (VP) disbanded the government coalition that has ruled the country since April 2001. According to, Vanuatu Independence Day is July 30. The Union of Moderate Parties (UMP) was forced to leave the government and…

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Tuvalu 2003

Tuvalu Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Tuvalu. According to, Tuvalu Independence Day is October 1. Parliament was closed almost all year after a prolonged struggle between the government and the opposition for the 15 seats. In February, the President of Parliament, who had belonged to the government side, passed away. In a general election in May, the government lost a mandate and thus lost its majority in Parliament. The opposition demanded that Parliament…

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Tonga 2003

Tonga Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Tonga. In February, the government banned continued import – and thus publishing – of the Democratic Movement’s Times of Tonga, which is printed in New Zealand and published in Tonga twice a week. According to the government, the newspaper is not allowed because it tries to overthrow the government and is published by a foreign national – Kalafi Moala, a US citizen born in Tonga. Shortly before the…

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Solomon Islands 2003

Solomon Islands Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Solomon Islands. According to, Solomon Islands Independence Day is July 7. The continued violence between armed groups in the Solomon Islands led to an Australian-led regional peace force of over 2,200 men being sent to the islands in July with the task of disarming militia groups and stopping the influx of illegal weapons. Soon, the Malayan eagle force was ready to lay down its weapons. The group…

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Samoa 2003

Samoa Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Samoa. According to, Samoa Independence Day is June 1. The ruling Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP) strengthened its position in Parliament after a August general election. The HRPP thus had 32 of Parliament’s 49 seats. Samoa decided to join 15 policemen in the Australian-led force who were sent to the Solomon Islands in July to establish law and order after the civil war there. As of August,…

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Papua New Guinea 2003

Papua New Guinea Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Papua New Guinea. According to, Papua New Guinea Independence Day is September 16. Papua New Guinea’s relationship with Australia deteriorated significantly during the year. In March, an Australian research center released a report claiming that Papua New Guinea was heading towards “economic powerlessness, government collapse and social hopelessness”. The report, which pointed to widespread crime and corruption, urged the Australian government to take action in its former…

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Palau 2003

Palau Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Palau. According to, Palau1 Independence Day is October. Tourist income in Palau fell sharply as a result of the virus disease sars. According to the country’s tourism authorities, the number of visitors decreased by 62% in the first half of the year compared to the same period the year before. Fear of the disease continued to affect tourism even after the World Health Organization WHO declared in…

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New Zealand 2003

New Zealand Border Map

Yearbook 2003 New Zealand. In February, in a referendum, the Maori people ngati awa on the North Island approved a settlement with the government which, in addition to an apology, gave them 64 hectares of the krona’s land and damages of 42 million New Zealand dollars. In 1865, 245,000 hectares of land were confiscated from ngati awa, and several Maoris were executed after being wrongly accused of murdering a missionary.…

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Nauru 2003

Nauru Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Nauru. In January, President René Harris was put to a vote of no confidence in Parliament. He had not received his budget bill and the opposition accused him of mismanaging the country’s economy. Harris had also been criticized for accepting asylum seekers in Australia in exchange for aid. He was replaced by former President Bernard Dowiyogo. A few days later, the vote of no confidence was annulled by…

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Micronesia 2003

Micronesia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Micronesia Federation. According to, Micronesia Independence Day is November 3. President Leo Amy Falcam surprisingly lost his seat in Congress to opponent Resio Moses in the March 4 election, when five new senators were elected. On May 10, Congress appointed Joseph Urusemal from the island of Yap as new president. Senator Redley Killion of Chuuk was re-elected Vice President and Senator Peter Christian was elected Congress President.…

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Marshall Islands 2003

Marshall Islands Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Marshall Islands. On 30 April, the Marshall Islands and the United States signed a new Compact of Free Association agreement which provides the state with assistance over the next 20 years. According to, Marshall Islands Independence Day is May 1. The US continued to have the right to have military bases on the Kwajaleinatoll. However, the new agreement does not include either medical care or compensation for…

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Kiribati 2003

Kiribati Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Kiribati. According to, Kiribati Independence Day is July 12. Teburoro Tito was re-elected for a third term in the presidential election Feb. 24 after defeating Tarberannang Timeon by a marginal margin. On March 28, the new government fell after losing a vote on the budget. A transitional government took over pending new elections. Elections to Parliament’s 42 seats were held on May 9. Tito’s political group, Maneaban…

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Fiji 2003

Fiji Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Fiji. According to, Fiji Independence Day is October 10.The Supreme Court announced in July that Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase’s refusal to include the Indian-dominated Labor Party (FLP) in government violates the Constitution. According to Fiji’s constitution, which aims to promote multi-party governments with representatives from different ethnic groups, parties with at least 10% of seats in the House of Representatives are entitled to government posts. FLP has…

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Australia 2003

Australia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Australia. The severe forest and bush fires that ravaged the south in January caused at least four deaths and extensive material damage. Forest fires occur annually in Australia, but this time was exacerbated by severe drought. Agricultural production was so severely affected that in January Australia was forced to import corn and wheat for the first time in eight years. Australia Independence Day is January 26. The Australian…

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Oceania Geography

Oceania Population

Oceania is the name of one of the six parts of the world, or continents. It is located west of America and southeast and east of Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. Most of its area is in the southern hemisphere. Oceania is made up of about 10,000 islands spread across the Pacific Ocean. It comprises, in all, fourteen countries: eleven are in the smaller islands, in addition to three larger…

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