Cuba Border Map

Yearbook 2003

Cuba. In the first half of the year, 75 dissidents were sentenced to a total of 1,454 years in prison for violating national security, and three hijackers who tried to bring a ferry with refugees to the United States were sentenced to death and executed. According to, Cuba Independence Day is October 10. The harsh attitude surprised the outside world, and the EU imposed sanctions on the country on 5 June.

At the same time, however, normalization between the United States and Cuba continued; a Cuban court kept its promise to US authorities not to sentence a number of ferry hijackers to more than 10 years in prison.

On September 10, the US Congress approved a proposal that would effectively lift the travel ban to Cuba, and on October 23, Congress voted against President George W. Bush’s proposal to tighten the embargo. Bush’s tougher line was also not supported by dissidents in Cuba, who said it was hampering the pursuit of normalization.

Immediate actions and consequences of the revolution

Immediately after the takeover, a civilian government made up of middle-class politicians was deployed. Congress was dissolved, the army reorganized with the guerrillas as a base, and a new constitution was passed. Furthermore, a large number of officers from the Batista dictatorship were prosecuted and many executed for their attacks on the population.

For starters, Castro said the revolution was ” humanistic “, essentially different from both capitalism and communism. In April 1959, Castro visited the United States, inviting North American private equity to invest in Cuba’s industry. Nevertheless, after a meeting with Castro, Vice President Nixon said he should be overthrown with violence. It was not until the summer of 1960 that there was an open break in the relationship between Cuba and the United States. Cuba had concluded a trade agreement with the Soviet Union, including on oil purchases, but the North American oil refineries refused to refine Soviet oil. Cuba again responded by nationalizing the oil refineries. The US response to this was to reduce the quotas for sugar imports from Cuba.The sugar accounted for 3/4 of Cuba’s export revenue, the majority of which was exported to the United States.

The Soviet proved willing to support Cuba against the threat from the United States and took over the US sugar quota. Several North American companies were nationalized, the United States introduced a total trade boycott that most Western countries eventually joined, and diplomatic relations were severed. The structural changes that Cuban society underwent gradually triggered strong opposition both among the national bourgeoisie and other privileged groups, and not least among the North American capital interests. The former privileged began traveling from the country: About half a million emigrated until the emigration stop was introduced in 1970 – most to the United States. Among these, 1/3 of all doctors in the country, a large proportion of the teachers and the most well-trained groups of professional and technical staff. The exile Cubans created resistance groups, aimed at overthrowing Castro, and also resistance in Cuba was organized – among other things. guerrilla. In fact, the government first got this revolt under control in 1962, but it never received support from the people: An independent survey in 1960 found that 80% of Cubans supported Castro. After the revolution, 3,500 civil servants were laid off, and 450 of Batista’s closest employees were executed. A total of 25,000 people were arrested for political reasons, but the vast majority of them have been systematically and gradually locked back into society.

In an attempt to break the government that had implemented land reform and nationalized a large number of North American companies, on April 15, 1961, the United States organized an invasion of Cuban counter-revolutionaries in the Bay of Pigs. Both the United States and the exile Cubans were convinced that the Cubans would rise against Castro, but after 72 hours of fierce fighting in the Bay of Pigs and without any uprising, the invasion force had been defeated. Two days earlier, Castro had spoken at the funeral of the victims of a terrorist bombing of Habana airport, and had on that occasion declared the revolution socialist.

In January 1962, the United States expelled Cuba from the Organization of American States (OAS), pressured a number of countries to cease diplomatic relations with the country, and launched an economic boycott of the country on the grounds that Cuba supported subversive movements in other countries. parts of Latin America. In October of that year, the installation of Soviet missile ramps in Cuba brought the two superpowers to the brink of nuclear war. The crisis was resolved by an agreement between the two that made Cuba nuclear-free, and at the same time obliged the United States not to attack the country, but the Cuban demands for the economic blockade to stop US soldiers being withdrawn were not taken into account. from Guantánamo, and that the United States should stop the terrorist attacks from its territory.

Cuba Border Map