In 2003, Egypt was a large country in the Middle East with a population of around 70 million people. It had a GDP of $183 billion and its economy was heavily reliant on tourism, oil exports, and remittances from Egyptians living abroad. The country was politically stable, having been governed by President Hosni Mubarak since 1981.
According to computergees, Egypt had made some progress towards economic growth and social equality but overall progress was slow due to limited resources and lack of foreign investment. The political landscape in 2003 was dominated by President Hosni Mubarak who had implemented several reforms to promote economic growth and social equality.
Despite its political stability, freedom of speech and press were restricted due to strict censorship laws and surveillance practices. Additionally, access to free education and healthcare services were limited due to lack of resources but some progress had been made towards providing more access for citizens. Economic growth was further hindered by corruption, poor infrastructure, high levels of inequality, and lack of access to international markets.
Egypt. On January 29, the government decided to abandon the Egyptian pound’s fixed exchange rate against the dollar. The pound fell immediately by 16%. The decision led to a shortage of dollars and other hard currencies, which created a black market for these.
According to Countryaah.com, Egypt Independence Day is July 23. The government legislated that all exporting companies must place 75% of their export earnings in Egyptian banks. Assessors believed it created a major capital flight.
The Egyptian tourism industry recovered quickly after the fall of 2000. For example, the number of tourists in August was 30% higher than last year. Many tourists were Saudis or visitors from other Gulf states who did not feel welcome in Europe and the United States. In addition, many Israeli tourists came.
Lawyer Tahani al-Jabani became the country’s first female judge when she was appointed judge in the Constitutional Court in January.
On 23 February, Parliament voted for a three-year extension of the state of emergency imposed after the assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981.
Around 800 people were arrested in Cairo on March 21 in connection with protest demonstrations against the US war in Iraq. Most were soon released, but according to the American human rights organization Human Rights Watch, many others were beaten and tortured by those arrested.
The human rights organization Amnesty International reported in November that prisoners are often tortured in Egyptian prisons. In 2002, according to Amnesty, seven prisoners had been tortured to death.
In July, it was reported that eleven of the gay men who had previously been convicted of bullying had been acquitted by a higher court because of procedural errors.
In early October, the government released over 2,000 prisoners, about half of whom were Islamists, most members of the al-Jama’at al-Islamiyya group.
On January 30, Mubarak sent security forces back on the streets, but failed to polish them on the protesters to avoid clashes with the military. Instead, he announced on Feb. 1 that he would resign as president until September, where new elections would be held and that his son would not run for office. However, the admission by the president was completely inadequate to the protesters demanding his unconditional departure. On February 2, he therefore campaigned against the protesters as he deployed security forces dressed in civilians and members of the ruling party to conduct demonstrations in Cairo and other major cities – in support of the president – and violently attack protesters in Tahrir Square in particular. The military kept a low profile during these clashes, which cost up to 100 killed and several thousand wounded. At the same time, Mubarak directed his forces against foreign journalists who were watched on the streets or in their hotels and knocked over. This included Swedish TV reporter Bert Sundström, who was assaulted, stabbed and for some days hovered in danger of life. The state media at the same time spread the message to the rural population and other doubters that it was Israeli agents behind the uprising. Despite Egypt’s 1979 peace treaty with Israel, the regime knew well that the Egyptian people are deeply angered by Israel’s treatment of the Palestinian people. This anger had been the regime’s own efforts to keep itself in check since the 1979 peace agreement, but it was now mobilized against the opposition and foreign journalists. that there is deep anger in the Egyptian people over Israel’s treatment of the Palestinian people. This anger had been the regime’s own efforts to keep itself in check since the 1979 peace agreement, but it was now mobilized against the opposition and foreign journalists.
However, Mubarak’s attack on the demonstrations erupted within days when the military declared it would no longer allow the clashes. Mubarak’s means of crushing the rebellion were running out. This weekend 5-6. In February, Vice President Omar Suleiman began negotiations with the “opposition”. However, not with the opposition that had occupied Tahrir Square, or the parties and movements that the regime had banned. On Sunday, Egypt’s Coptic minority mass held at Tahrir Square, underlining that the country’s Christians were also behind the rebellion against Mubarak.
On February 10, the country buzzed with rumors of Mubarak’s departure, but when he finally spoke late at night, it was just to say he was on the record. This announcement led to 7 million Egyptians walking in the streets following the Friday prayers the following day, and only on the late 11th afternoon could the Vice President go on display announcing that Mubarak was no longer president but that the military had taken over power.
The protesters had fulfilled the demand to have Mubarak removed, which over the years had stolen a double-digit billions (in dollars) from the Egyptian treasury. But unlike Tunisia, which dissolved the old kleptocratic government party, Egypt’s ruling party was unabated. Demonstrations to prosecute the dictatorship men drew only a few thousand in Cairo, and the military was therefore able to quietly declare that within a few months a new constitution would be drafted and that the authors would be members of the old ruling party. Mubarak went into “exile” at his summer residence in Sharm el-sheik.
Power was formally taken over by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), Mohamed Hussein Tantawi. Egypt thus formally became a military dictatorship.
Behind the scene, the United States had unfolded extensive diplomatic activity to prevent the rebellion from developing uncontrollably, as in Tunisia. Since 1978, Egypt has been the second largest recipient of North American “foreign aid” – ie. military equipment – and most of the country’s officers are trained in the United States. The US had wished it was the military intelligence chief Omar Suleiman who had taken over the presidential post, but the military’s formal takeover of power was just as good. The United States gained some control over the political development of the country, thereby preventing dissatisfaction with the corruption, lack of jobs and Israel’s assault on the Palestinian people, leading to a more US critical opposition taking over the country. In 2011, the United States granted:
- 65 million US $ for “democracy and human rights activities” in Egypt
- 250 million US $ in financial aid
- 1.3 billion US $ military assistance
- 100 million US $ in additional financial assistance
- In March, the superpower presented debt relief plans to Egypt.
In February, SCAF immediately released several thousand political prisoners who were imprisoned under the 1958 emergency legislation, but in 2011, SCAF itself sued over 12,000 civilian Egyptians before military courts. Over 100 times more than previous years. Young people under the age of 15 were sentenced to military courts and sentenced to longer prison terms.
Arab Republic of Egypt Brief Guide
According to AbbreviationFinder, the Arab Republic of Egypt, or Egypt (Misr in Arabic), is a state in North Africa. Its neighbors are Israel in the northeast, Libya in the west and Sudan in the south. Egypt is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea and on the east by the Red Sea.