India 2003

India Border Map

In 2003, India was a populous and diverse country located in South Asia with a population of around 1.1 billion people. It was the second most populous country in the world and the seventh largest in terms of land area. According to computergees, the capital city was New Delhi and the official language was Hindi. The economy had been growing steadily since the early 1990s thanks to liberalization policies implemented by the government which had increased foreign investment, reduced taxes on businesses and allowed more competition in certain industries. Despite this economic success, poverty and inequality were still major issues in India with millions of people living below the poverty line. Education levels were low compared to other countries in Asia, but healthcare access had improved due to government efforts to expand access to public health services. Crime rates were high compared to other countries in Asia, but there were no reports of political violence in 2003. The government at the time was led by a coalition between several centrist parties which had been in power since 1998 and had implemented several economic reforms such as reducing tariffs on imports and introducing labor reforms. Despite its vast size, India maintained strong cultural ties to its neighbors including its unique cuisine as well as its rich history of literature, music and art forms such as Hinduism and Buddhism which have been passed down for centuries.

Yearbook 2003

India. During a visit by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in China, several agreements were signed that marked an improvement in relations between the two Asian powers. Among other things, they entered into an agreement on increased scientific and technical cooperation and joint projects for water and energy supply. India at the same time acknowledged China’s supremacy over Tibet, while China indirectly reaffirmed I’s sovereignty over Sikkim.

According to, India Independence Day is August 15. A September visit to Israel by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon led to a deal on Israeli sales, with US approval, to India of the advanced radar system Phalcon, a deal valued at $ 1 billion. Security policy assessors saw the emergence of a new strategic axis US-Israel-India. The three countries are united, among other things, in concerns about Islamist terrorism.

Relations with Pakistan also improved somewhat. Admittedly, I rejected a Pakistani proposal for a “road map for peace” in the disputed Kashmir, since the plan required third-party mediation, which India has always opposed. However, in October, India submitted a list of twelve items for concrete confidence-building measures, including: resumed sports contacts and new flight, train, bus and ferry connections. In November, the countries agreed on a ceasefire across the unofficial border in Kashmir. At the same time, Kashmiri extremist groups became more active and clashes in the state demanded an average of about ten casualties per day for much of the year. The situation became increasingly unmanageable when the Kashmiri umbrella organization Freedom Conference was split into a moderate phalanx,

The old battle question as to whether Hindus or Muslims are entitled to a disputed temple site in the city of Ayodhya in northern India was again raised. An archaeological study suggested that there have been temples since the 9th century, which Hindu circles believed confirmed their claim in the area. At the same time, a court released Deputy Prime Minister Lal Krishna Advani, considered Hindu nationalist “hawk”, from allegations of having alleged the illegal demolition of a mosque in the temple site in 1992.

The year was financially very good for India, who in June joined the group of rich countries contributing to the work of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). India himself became debt free to the IMF 2000 and now paid almost US $ 300 million to the fund. At the same time, India declined to continue bilateral assistance from Sweden and 21 other countries.

Economic development was favored by exceptionally good monsoon rains which led to large harvests, and economic growth for 2003/04 was estimated at over 7%. In December, the foreign exchange reserve reached a record level of USD 100 billion.

This good situation and a state budget that was considered very consumer-friendly were considered to have contributed to giving the ruling BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) the dominant government victory in three important elections in December in states governed by rival Congress Party. A strengthened BJP looked forward to the 2004 parliamentary elections.

In 1994, the Supreme Court ruled that the state governments could lose their powers of power if they did not defend freedom of religion, as described in the Constitution. Meanwhile, conflicts between Hindus and Muslims in the state of Karnataka continued.

In the same year, India and China signed two agreements. The first meant a reduction in the number of troops along the common 4000 km border and the second to expand trade. At the same time, Pakistan closed its consulate in Bombay following a deterioration in relations between the two countries. The occasion was statements by former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif that the country had nuclear weapons.

Through 1995, Prime Minister Narasimha Rao transformed his cabinet three times. Elections in various states also showed a growing weakening of the Congress Party, which was plagued by shelling and by the growth of the Hindu Nationalist Party, Bharatiya Janata (BJP). In the state of Maharashtra, the new BJP government decided to change the name of the city of Bombay to Mumbai.

Despite the financial stability and the decision to implement various social programs, including the schooling of 110 million children and the building of 10 million housing in rural areas, Rao failed to prevent its decline in popularity. Rao resigned on May 10, 1996, after his party lost the elections in the days of April 27 to May 7. BJP gained 187 seats in alliance with several smaller parties, Congress Party 138 and Unity Front – the former National Front – 117. BJP failed to get parliamentary majority to rule, and its new prime minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, resigned on 28 May, 12 days after taking over the post. President Shankar Dayal Sharma, therefore, appointed HD Deve Gowda of the Unity Front to head a new government which received support from the Congress Party.

A new agreement with China was implemented around the reduction of troops along the common border. In March 1997, Pakistani Foreign Minister Shamshad Ahmad visited India to reopen negotiations and normalize relations between the two countries. That same month, the Congress Party withdrew support for the Gowda government, triggering its fall. In June, Sitaram Kesri was elected President of the Congress Party. It was he who was the architect of the breach with the left wing. One month after Gowda’s fall, Inder Kumar Gujral – also from the Unity Front – was appointed prime minister. In July, Vice President KR Narayanan was elected President.

In November, the Congress party withdrew its support for the Gujral government when an official commission revealed possible links between a party in the government coalition – Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (DMK) – and the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka, who were behind the assassination 6 years earlier on Gandhi. Gujral therefore had to withdraw.

India Border Map

Republic of India Brief Guide

According to AbbreviationFinder, India is a federation in South Asia. India is one of the largest countries in the world in terms of area and the second most populous country in the world. India’s neighbors are Bangladesh, Burma, the People’s Republic of China, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The capital of India is New Delhi, other important cities are e.g. Calcutta (now Kolkata), Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai).

Hundreds of languages ​​are spoken in India, but the official language of the state is Hindi. English is still used as an official language and is doing well throughout the country. India’s importance has grown even greater thanks to its large population and growing economy as the country modernizes at a rapid pace; tourism infrastructure has also improved considerably in recent years and quality services are available everywhere.

Indeed, India has quickly become a favorite of backpackers looking for good quality services and experiences.

Food and drink
India has several food cultures due to its long history as well as several religions. Indian food is characterized by regional differences, abundant use of spices, and restrictions imposed by religions. India has received cultural influences e.g. from the Moguls, the Arabs, the Iranians, and the Chinese. For religions, Islam and Hinduism have been the most influential. Hinduism forbids eating beef and Islam forbids Muslims from eating pork. The vegetarian diet is very popular especially among Hindus. The Indian meal combines six basic flavors of sour, sweet, tart, salty, bitter and intoxicating. The main spices used are mustard seeds, chili peppers, turmeric, cumin, clove, ginger, coriander and resin. Desserts use cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg and saffron.

Yogurt, onion, garlic, cream, coconut fat, ghee, sesame are often used in meals; olive and mustard oil. Legumes such as chickpeas, lentils, kidney beans, black-eyed beans and mung beans are widely used as raw materials. The most prestigious rice variety in India is Basmati. There are many traditional Indian breads, such as chapati or roti wheat bread baked in water or oven-baked naan bread. Meals are often enjoyed on a metal plate or bowls as well as a banana leaf. The various curries are traditional Indian food or e.g. samosa which is a meat dish that is deep-fried and wrapped in dough. Milk is often used for desserts, e.g. in the form of various puddings. The fruit offer is also wide. Drinking tea is preferred in northern India and coffee in southern India. Coconut milk and yoghurt drink Lassi are also used. Water and beverages must be industrially bottled. It is also a good idea to rinse fruits and vegetables with bottled water. Heated or tablet-purified water can be drunk. Reheated foods should be avoided.