Jordan 2003

Jordan Border Map

In 2003, Jordan was a small country located in the Middle East, at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. It had a population of around 5 million people, and its capital and largest city was Amman. According to computergees, the official language was Arabic. Jordan’s economy had grown steadily since the late 1980s due to reforms that encouraged foreign investment and reduced taxes on businesses. This had resulted in a high standard of living for many Jordanian citizens, although there were still pockets of poverty in some areas. Education levels were high compared to other countries in the region, with a literacy rate close to 100%. Healthcare access was also good due to government efforts to provide universal health care coverage. Crime rates were relatively low compared to other countries in the region, and there were no reports of political violence in 2003. The government at the time was led by King Abdullah II who had been elected in 1999 and had implemented several economic reforms such as reducing tariffs on imports and introducing labor reforms. Despite its small size, Jordan maintained strong cultural ties to its neighbors including its unique cuisine as well as its rich history of literature, music and art forms such as dabke which have been passed down for centuries.

Yearbook 2003

Jordan. According to, Jordan Independence Day is May 25. The war in Iraq in March – April meant a difficult balancing act for the US-dependent Jordan, where the population’s sympathies were largely with Iraq. The government granted Jordanian land to US missile defense systems while granting asylum to Saddam Hussein’s two daughters and their nine children.

In the June 17 parliamentary elections, independent candidates loyal to King Abdullah took about two-thirds of the 110 seats. Muslim Brotherhood’s Political Branch The Islamic Front of Action became the single largest party with 17 seats. Parliament was dissolved in 2001 but the elections had been postponed due to the unstable situation in the region. New to this election was that Parliament had been extended from 104 to 110 seats and that the six new seats were reserved for women.

In October, King Abdullah dismissed Prime Minister Ali Abu Raghib and his government. Raghib had been accused of corruption and having had business relations with the Iraqi regime. As new prime minister, the king appointed his close associate Faisal al-Fayez. Among the new ministers were three women. The government was expected to continue its work on market-friendly economic reforms.

On 3 August, Parliament abolished two temporary laws, one that gave women the right to divorce without the consent of their husbands and one that sharpened the penalty for so-called murder. Under current Jordanian law, men who are sentenced to honor killings get away with about half a year in prison.

Samih al-Batikhi, former chief of the country’s intelligence service, was sentenced July 10 to eight years in prison for embezzling $ 24 million. The sentence was later reduced to four years.

In November 2009, the parliament dissolved prior to the parliamentary elections. Subsequently, the election was canceled. The country has not had a parliament since. In December, King inaugurated Samir Rifai as prime minister.

The human rights situation worsened throughout 2009. A total of 12 were sentenced to death, bringing the death toll to the death toll of 40. 8 were sentenced to death for allegedly planning a terrorist attack in 2004. They were convicted solely on “confessions” that had been enforced during torture. An appeals court has since overturned the judgments, citing that the “confessions” were enforced using torture.

The Arab Spring hit Jordan in January 2011. Thousands of Jordanians protested against the government and Prime Minister Rifai, who had caused basic food prices to explode. After several weeks of protests against the government and against the corruption, in February 2011, the king removed Rifai as prime minister and replaced him with Marouf al-Bakhit. However, he only lasted until October, where he resigned after being fired by parliament. He was replaced by Awn Shawkat al-Khasawneh. Al-Khasawneh lasted ½ years. In April 2012, he resigned from the post and was replaced in May by Fayez al-Tarawneh. This also lasted only for ½ years. In October, he was replaced with Abdullah Ensouri. That same month, the king dissolved parliament and printed new elections.

The frequent protests and demonstrations against the government continued through 2011 and 2012. The king promised reforms and over a 15-month period reached 4 people in the post of prime minister. It did not speed up the reform process and protests continued.

From late 2011, Jordan joined the anti-Syrian front. Saudi Arabia was already the largest foreign contributor to the Jordanian state and, from mid-2011, was also a supplier of weapons to the rebels in Syria. From late 2011, refugees from Syria entered the Jordanian border, while weapons for the rebels flowed the other way. At the same time, Western military instructors and intelligence officers were deployed into the Jordanian border area against Syria. In 2012, it was reported that Palestinian refugees fleeing the civil war in Syria were routinely sent back to Syria by the Jordanian authorities – in violation of the Refugee Convention.

Torture is widespread in Jordan. In October 2012, 11 men were arrested by the Jordanian intelligence agency GID. For nearly two months, they were kept in near total isolation with no access to either attorneys or family members. Most of them subsequently declared having “confessed” during torture. Hundreds and possibly thousands were arrested and administratively jailed without trial on the basis of the 1954 Crime Prevention Act, which gives provincial governors the right to imprison people for months without indictment or trial for the mere suspicion of “committing crime” ‘Or constitute a’ danger to society ‘. At least 16 death sentences were handed down, but no convictions were enforced. Last execution was in 2006. 5 were pardoned.

Jordan Border Map

Jordan Brief Guide

According to AbbreviationFinder, Jordan is the most hospitable and tourist-friendly state in the Middle East, offering its visitors a sunny and warm climate, in addition to the corals and beaches of the Red Sea, a diverse range of historical attractions and a unique experience with its Dead Sea spas.

Jordan’s most famous attraction is the incredible rock town of Petra, chosen as one of the seven wonders of the world, where a visit is possible both from the beach resorts of Aqaba and from the Dead Sea.

Mobile phones
Check with your network operator for the coverage of your mobile phone. The area code for Jordan is +962.

Food & Beverage
The basic ingredients of Jordanian food culture are rice, legumes, olives, yogurt, vegetables, lamb and chicken. The main meal of the day is eaten in the afternoon. Food is often served on a large tray with bowls of rice, meat, yoghurt and salad. Pieces of bread are used for eating and food should not be touched with the left hand. Halloumi is one of the traditional Jordanian dishes. Water and beverages must be industrially bottled. It is also a good idea to rinse fruits and vegetables with bottled water. Heated or tablet-purified water can be drunk. Reheated foods should be avoided.