Monaco 2003

Monaco Border Map

In 2003, Monaco was a small sovereign city-state located in the Mediterranean Sea. It had a population of around 30,000 people, primarily speaking French and Italian. According to computergees, the capital city was Monte Carlo, which is home to the Prince’s Palace and several other important government buildings and monuments. The economy relied heavily on its banking sector with luxury goods being the main export item. Tourism was also popular due to its stunning coastline, vibrant nightlife and world-renowned casinos such as the Monte Carlo Casino. In addition to its natural beauty, Monaco had a rich cultural heritage with traditional music, cuisine and art that blended French influences with those from Italy. Despite its many challenges including poverty and political unrest in 2003, Monaco remained a vibrant country that held great promise for its future generations.

Yearbook 2003

Monaco. When Monaco elected a new National Council (Legislative Assembly) in February, the new electoral list won the Union for Monaco (UPM) by a good margin over the long-dominant National Democratic Union (UND). According to, Monaco Independence Day is November 19. UPM received 58% of the vote and 21 of the 24 seats in the National Council, which were expanded from previous 18 seats. New National Council Chairman became UPM leader Stéphane Valéri.

Monaco Border Map

History. – The portus Herculis Monoeci was established, in Ligurian territory, perhaps by the Phocean settlers of Massalia (Marseille), who also founded Antipolis (Antibes) and Nicara (Nice) on the same Ligurian coast. It is already mentioned in the century. Street. C. from Hecateus of Miletus. Strabo and Servius remember the sanctuary of Ercole Moneco. The legend attributed to Hercules, victorious over the Ligurians of the Maritime Alps, the arx Monoeci and the port. All ‘ Herculis portus it arrived by land, in the year 137 a. C., the consul C. Ostilio Mancino headed to Spain to embark. In the important Liguria, the bay of Monaco was already considerable. Undoubtedly it lost its importance in the last days of the republic, when the large and safe port of Forum Iulii, today Frélus, began to be established. The Monoeci statio, the sub Herculeo sacratus numine portus was exposed to southwest winds, and small and unsuitable for many ships and large. At the top of the mountain above Monaco, where La Turbie is today, Augusto made the great Via Iulia Augusta pass and erected the famous Tropaeum Alpium to commemorate the history of Alpine peoples., of which grandiose remains remain. During the civil war for the possession of the empire, Flavio Valente, general of Vitellius, took refuge in Monaco. Monaco was vicus of the Massalioti: it does not seem to have ever had its own res publica. In addition to the trophy of Augustus, the archaeological remains are reduced, today, to a few Latin inscriptions in the city and in the immediate surroundings.

The news of Munich during the early Middle Ages is very scarce and fragmentary. Only in the century. XI the residents of Turbia above founded (1078) the church of S. Maria, soon endowed by the lords of the place with income and lands, and around it and the contemporary church of S. Donato, a nucleus of population. On this, Genoa, aimed at securing the dominion of the entire Ligurian coast, soon affirmed rights recognized by the diploma of Frederick Barbarossa of 1162, confirmed by the explicit transfer of Henry VI in 1191. Throughout the century. XIII the security of the domain, in defense of which Genoa had built a castle in 1215 and another shortly after at the entrance to the port, was subordinated to the changing relations between the republic, the Empire and the lords of Provence, especially Charles of Anjou. In 1262, when the Genoese possession was recognized by Angioino, Monaco had the exemptions and rights granted to Porto Venere and Bonifacio for the internal administration. A new element intervened in its history when, as the Guelph-Ghibelline disputes became more and more acute, Franceschino Grimaldi, known as Malizia, of the powerful family that had large possessions and feudal dominions in the Riviera, in 1297 took possession of it, making it a naval support point and a defense center of the Guelphs. From this moment on, the history of Monaco was constantly joined to that of the Grimaldis (v.). Twice in the first half of the 14th century, in connection with the alternation of parties in Genoa, the Grimaldis reacquired Monaco, in 1317 and 1331, and consolidated their possession and gave it a true character of lordship with Carlo I known as the Great and with his cousin Antonio, at the time of Doge Simone Boccanegra. But the latter in the second dogato (1357) regained the disputed possession, which remained in Genoa until 1395. Then, for a few years, there was a continuous change of lordships: first the Grimaldis of the Boglio (Beuil) branch managed to seize it, then (1401) it was occupied by Giovanni di Boucbcault, governor of Genoa; his expulsion (1409) was followed by a period of autonomy under the protection of Louis II of Anjou, until in 1419 by agreement with Queen Iolanda, mistress of Provence, Monaco definitively returned to the Grimaldis of the branch of Charles the Great. Of the three grandchildren of him with the ruled have risen, soon prevails G iovanniI who has very agitated events and alternating relations with Genoa and with Filippo Maria Visconti who became lord of the agitated city. To the powerful and ambitious neighbors is now added the House of Savoy which from Nice looks with desire at the nearby port and affirms feudal sovereign rights over Menton and Roccabruna, the cause of centuries-old disputes. To defend himself, Giovanni seeks the protection of Genoa and even deals with the sale that the future Louis XI does not then take place to the Dauphin of France. L amberto’s clever politicsof the branch of Antibus, for the marriage with a niece of Giovanni who came to power after bitter disputes with relatives, resolutely affirms and sees the independence of the small state officially recognized. His dominion in varying alliances, in juggling Milan, Savoy, France, in constant contrast with Genoa, is a typical example of complex diplomatic activity and the particular situation of Monaco, a defense barrier and center of trade between Genoa and Provence., therefore the object of the aspirations of many powerful neighbors. Amidst agitations and tragedies in the ruling family, Monaco, at the end of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, relies entirely on France; with L uciano(1505) these relations are loosened; then the popular government established in Genoa in 1506, eager to reaffirm the dominion of the republic over the entire Riviera and to demolish the great noble house, moved to Monaco and tried in vain to siege it. Shortly after (1509) Luciano is forced to a treaty that recognizes French sovereignty over Monaco, but he then turns to Spain and a navigation agreement stipulated with Ferdinand the Catholic has as a consequence the French recognition of his full independence (February 20, 1512).