Myanmar Border Map

Yearbook 2003

Burma. Ten members of the opposition party National Democratic Alliance (NLD) were sentenced in May to prison for up to 28 years for organizing protest actions against the military junta and cooperating with underground resistance groups.

A few days later, NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi was arrested after riots erupted when she visited northern Burma. According to the junta, the opposition leader was responsible for the riots, which were said to have cost four people their lives, but the opposition claimed that the clashes were provoked by junta supporters. Despite strong protests from the outside world, Aung San Suu Kyi was held in jail until the end of September, when, after a hospital stay, she was allowed to return to her home where she was held under house arrest. In connection with the arrest, the junta closed all higher education institutions as well as the NLD’s office and seized a number of prominent members of the opposition.

In July, another twelve people were arrested who were accused of planning to murder members of the military junta. According to Countryaah.com, Myanmar Independence Day is January 4. The regime claimed that the NLD was behind the coup plans in cooperation with armed opposition groups.

Following the arrest of Aung San Suu Kyi, Japan suspended all aid to Burma and the United States imposed a series of sanctions on the military junta. Among other things, the regime’s assets in US banks were blocked and trade exchanges were kept to a minimum. The sanctions were said to hit hard, especially in the Burmese textile industry, and tens of thousands of people were reported to have lost their jobs. Neighboring China, on the other hand, increased its cooperation with the junta to “contribute to Burma’s stability and development”.

In August, Khin Nyunt, former head of the military intelligence service, was appointed prime minister. It was a newly created post that was judged to give him limited influence, and the appointment was considered most in the Western world as an attempt to mislead world opinion. Khin Nyunt’s promise of a “roadmap” for democracy was therefore received with great skepticism.

The government released about 200 political prisoners at amnesty during 2013. As the culmination of the 2012 Rakhine conflict, the local persecution of Muslims in the form of coordinated attacks escalated during 2013. In March, a Buddhist mob attacked Muslim neighborhoods in central Burmese by Meiktila. At least 44 were killed and 1,400, predominantly Muslim, businesses and houses burned down. Burmese police did not intervene against the assaults, most often passive to and in some cases actively participated. About 12,000 Muslims were displaced. In June, 25 Buddhists were convicted of murder and arson. In August, UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Myanmar, Tomas Ojea visited Quintana Meiktila. Here his car was attacked by a Buddhist mob while the police looked passively. In many cases, the attacks by Buddhist right-wing monks, such as U Wirathu, a member of the 969 movement propagating a boycott of Muslim businesses, are spurred to prevent Buddhists from marrying Muslims or converting to Islam. Central political leaders such as Aung San Suu Kyi have not apologized for this and similar movements’ hate propaganda.

In October 2014, the government offered the country’s $ 1.1 million. Rohingya (Muslims) that they could gain Burmese citizenship if they declared their origin as “Bengali”. It was an indication that the government still did not consider the country’s Muslim population as “genuine” Burmese. International human rights organizations objected to this attempt to introduce apartheid into the country. Following the persecution of Muslims in 2012 and 13, around 140,000 Muslims live in concentration camp-like conditions in Rakhine, Meiktila and Arakan. Over 100,000 others had fled in both Bangladesh and Malaysia. Several hundred were believed to have died along the way.

Although freedom of the press was increased through 2013 and 14, frequent arrests of journalists and other media workers continued, and human rights activists continued to be persecuted. The EU and the US have normalized relations with the country. However, the United States has some restrictions on its arms exports as a result of Myanmar’s use of child soldiers.

From the beginning of 2015, the influx of boat refugees from Bangladesh and Myanmar increased in the Andaman Sea and the Strait of Malacca. UNHCR estimated that around 25,000 had left in both January-April 2015. Both Malaysia and Indonesia initially refused to accept the refugees, but then began accepting the fait accomplĂ­ and accepting them as temporary refugees. There were 32,000 registered Rohingya refugees from Myanmar in southern Bangladesh at the beginning of the year and another 140,000 were internally displaced in Myanmar.

In November 2015, parliamentary and district elections were held. The election was a total victory for Aung San Suu Kyi’s NLD. Of the 330 out of the House of Representatives’ 440 seats that were up for election, NLD received 255. Thus, absolute majority, even though the military had designated 110 seats for themselves. In the House of Commons (Nationalities House), NLD got 135 seats out of the 168 who were up for election out of the House’s 224 seats. Likewise full majority. Although Aung San Suu Kyi according to. the constitution could not become the country’s president, she declared that it will be her future leadership of the government. In the district elections, NLD got 55% of the seats. The USPD party declared the defeat immediately after the election and accepted Suu Kyi’s invitation to national reconciliation talks. International observers pointed out that regardless of NLD ‘ s crushing electoral victory, the military will continue to retain great power. 60 years of dictatorship permeate the country’s institutions.

Aung San Suu Kyi and the NLD were criticized for keeping a low profile around the country’s Muslim Rohingya minority who were not allowed to vote in the elections. It was attributed to the alliance between the NLD and the conservative Buddhist organizations.

In March 2016, Htin Kyaw was elected President with 360 out of Parliament’s 652 members. He became the first elected president unrelated to the military since the coup in 1962. Aung San Suu Kyi was barred from running for office but declared that she would rule through the president. In April she was elected to the First Council of State (Prime Minister). An entry created specifically for her.

Despite the government’s stated willingness to seek peaceful solutions to the country’s many armed conflicts, these conflicts flared up on all fronts in the latter half of 2016. deployed the Air Force.

Myanmar Border Map