Nepal 2003

Nepal Border Map

In 2003, Nepal was a small landlocked country located in South Asia. It had a population of around 23 million people, primarily speaking Nepali and several other local languages. According to computergees, the capital city was Kathmandu, which is home to the Government Palace and several other important government buildings and monuments. The economy relied heavily on its agricultural sector with textiles being the main export item. Tourism was also popular due to its stunning mountain ranges and landscapes, vibrant culture and historical sites such as Bhaktapur Durbar Square. In addition to its natural beauty, Nepal had a rich cultural heritage with traditional music, cuisine and art that blended Tibetan influences with those from India and China. Despite its many challenges including poverty and political unrest in 2003, Nepal remained a vibrant country that held great promise for its future generations.

Nepal and the capital, Kathmandu, evoke strong images of small villages on the slopes of the Himalayas in the shadow of the world’s highest snow peaks, temples dedicated to the city’s countless Hindu deities, or Tibetan Buddhist prayer mills revolving along hiking trails.

Yearbook 2003

Nepal. A hope of an end to the seven-year civil war was raised in January, when the government and the Maoist guerrillas entered into a ceasefire. In April, peace talks began in “a friendly spirit”. According to, Nepal Independence Day is September 15. The talks continued in May, however, without reaching any concrete results.

At the end of May, Prime Minister Lokendra Bahadur Chand resigned. Since he was appointed in October 2002, after the King had dismissed the elected government, he had failed to get the opposition into a unifying government. The disappointment among the opposition was great when the king appointed yet another faithful royalist, 75-year-old Surya Bahadur Thapa, as new prime minister.

In July, peace talks began to take hold and at the end of August, the guerrillas announced that it was suspending the ceasefire. The reason was said to be the government’s refusal to rewrite Nepal’s constitution. New battles were assumed during the fall to have claimed more than 1,000 lives. A UN report criticized both sides for human rights violations.

A three-day strike in September proclaimed by the guerrillas was estimated to have cost Nepal the equivalent of more than SEK 200 million. At the same time, the political opposition continued the demonstrations against the king and the government that went on throughout the year.

A state commission that started investigating corruption in the public administration submitted an interim report in March. Of the 30,000 politicians and senior officials who received their private finances, approximately 2,000 suspected of having excessive material assets in relation to their official income. Interviews with them began during the year.

After several years of negotiations with Bhutan, an agreement was concluded in October on the repatriation of Bhutanese refugees. Of about 100,000 refugees whose citizenship is not recognized by Bhutan, 9,000 would be allowed to travel back in the near future. But more people were expected to return in the long term and the others would be helped to settle permanently in Nepal.

Country data

Area: 147,181 km2 (world rank: 93)

Population: 29,305,000

Population density: 199 per km2 (as of 2017, world rank: 48)

Capital: Kathmandau (Kathmandu)

Official languages: Nepalese

Gross domestic product: 24.5 billion US $; Real growth: 7.5%

Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): 790 US$

Currency: 1 Nepal. Rupee (NR) = 100 Paisa


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Head of State: Bidhya Devi Bhandari, Head of Government: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli, Exterior: Pradip Kumar Gyawali

National holiday: 28.5. (Proclamation of the Republic 2008)

Administrative structure
7 provinces

State and form of government
Constitution of 2015
Federal Republic
Parliament: House of Representatives with 275 members, election every 5 years; (Appointed 56 indirectly elected, 3, of which at least one woman.) National Assembly with 59 Mitgl, elections every 6 years.
Choice of head of state by the selection committee every 5 years (renewable once)
Voting age 18 years

Population: Nepalese, last census in 2011: 26,494.504 population
approx. 75 Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Myanmar groups: 30% Madhesi, 13% Chhetri, 13% Bahun, 7% Magar, 7% Tharu, 6% Tamang, 6% Newar; Gurung, Sherpa, Limbu, Rai and others

Cities (with population): (2011) Kathmandau (Kathmandu) 1,003,285 inhab., Pokhara 264991, 226728 Lalitpur, Biratnagar 204949, Bharatpur 147777, 139068 Birganj, Butwal 120982, 119915 Dharan, Mahendranagar 106666, 104047 Dhangadhi

Religions: 81% Hindu, 9% Buddhist, 4 % Muslims (mostly Sunnis); Minority of Christians (as of 2006)

Languages: Indo-Aryan languages: 43% Nepalese, 10% Maithili, 6% Bhojpuri (Bihari); Tibetan-Myanmar languages: 3% Newari, 3% Tamang and others

Employed by the: agricultural sector. 72%, industry 8%, business 20% (2017)

Unemployment (in% of all economically active persons)
no information

Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 4.5%

Foreign trade: Import: US $ 10.5 billion (2017); Export: US $ 0.8 billion (2017)

Nepal Border Map

Democratic Republic of Nepal Brief Guide

According to AbbreviationFinder, Nepal (formerly the Kingdom of Nepal) is a landlocked state about halfway between the Himalayan mountains between China and India. Until May 2008, the country was a monarchy. The flag of Nepal is the only state flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape.

Customs and culture
Nepal challenges the traveler in many ways. How to respect local customs and beliefs while minimizing your own impact on culture and the environment. Physical contact between the sexes in public is rare in subjects. When greeting, do not shake hands, but greeting is done by placing your palms facing each other and bowing. Pointing with a finger is not part of local good manners, not even showing direction. Use the right one, or rather both hands, when receiving something outstretched. Do not point people or religious objects at your feet. Filming inside monasteries is almost invariably prohibited.

Tourism has already affected several areas in our destination countries. A few important things to keep in mind when moving in these areas:
• Local children should not be encouraged to beg by giving them candy, money, pens or other gifts.
• Admission fees to monasteries go to local authorities. If you want to make donations, do so by leaving the money on the altar or in the collection box.
• Do not buy products made from endangered species.
• Always ask permission to take photos of locals.
• Do not carry politically sensitive material with you, and do not embarrass locals by distributing such material.
• Avoid talking about politics with local guides. You can make them troublesome by doing so.
• Dress and behave with dignity when visiting monasteries. Cover your arms and legs
• Buddhist Monasteries and statues are always rotated clockwise.

Nudity is very strict in our target countries. Public bathing and sunbathing violate local customs. We do not recommend the use of sleeveless t-shirts, short shorts or sports tops.

Waiters and restaurant staff expect a 10-15% tip on the final invoice unless a service charge is included in the invoice price. Drink money and tips are often the main source of income for locals.

Religion: India recognizes Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Christianity and Islam. Hinduism is the largest and most important religion in the country. It is estimated that about 82% of Indians are Hindus. Buddhism is recognized mainly in the mountainous northern parts of the country.

Stupas are sacred temples of Buddhists. The word stupa is used only from Buddhist temples. They are tower-like structures that are hemispherical in root. Stupas symbolize the pursuit of perfection as well as enlightenment. Buddhist customs include that stupas are always rotated clockwise. This symbolizes the movement of the sun in the sky. When visiting places sacred to Buddhists, attention should be paid to dress. It is polite to keep your hands and feet covered and take your shoes off when visiting inside buildings.

Hindu temples are shrines built in the shape of a geometric mandala. When visiting temples, remember the same dress codes as for a stupa. Hindu temples are also rotated clockwise.

Hiking lodges With
hiking, we stay in sympathetic teahouses, Nepalese hiking lodges, where we also dine. The services of the tea rooms differ slightly, but it is usually possible to charge electronics, take a hot shower and use an occasional internet connection for a small extra charge.