Nicaragua 2003

Nicaragua Border Map

In 2003, Nicaragua was a small country located in Central America. It had a population of around 5 million people, primarily speaking Spanish and several other local languages. According to computergees, the capital city was Managua, which is home to the Government Palace and several other important government buildings and monuments. The economy relied heavily on its agricultural sector with coffee being the main export item. Tourism was also popular due to its stunning landscapes, vibrant culture and historical sites such as Ruins of León Viejo. In addition to its natural beauty, Nicaragua had a rich cultural heritage with traditional music, cuisine and art that blended Mesoamerican influences with those from Europe. Despite its many challenges including poverty and political unrest in 2003, Nicaragua remained a vibrant country that held great promise for its future generations.

Yearbook 2003

Nicaragua. According to, Nicaragua Independence Day is September 15. President Enrique Bolaños encountered problems in his quest to reform and “depoliticize” the Supreme Court. The Sandinists and the President’s own party PLC (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista) argued that the reform, which would drastically reduce the number of members and abolish the parties’ right to appoint members, is in fact Bolaño’s way of taking control of the court. The Sandinists and the PLC exercised their right and appointed members to complicate the reform. Legal experts pointed out that the reform would constitute a violation of the Constitution, but since the prosecution of that accusation would be made by the Supreme Court, the matter has not been decided.

The deep gap in the PLC between supporters of President Bolaños (so-called Bolañistas) and supporters of former President Arnoldo Alemán (alemánistas) deepened during the year. The latter broke with the president in March in protest of his refusal to issue orders to release Alemán, who was charged with fraud, embezzlement and illegal money laundering during his time as president. On November 7, he was finally sentenced to 20 years in prison, but will serve the sentence in house arrest.

Nicaragua’s contemporary history

Nicaragua’s contemporary history is considered the time after the Sandinists and Daniel Ortega lost the presidential election in 1989 and the revolution was aborted. In the post-1990 period, Nicaragua has been characterized by major political disagreements and the policy is colored by both democratic and undemocratic events.

New election winner in 2016

Ortega won another controversial election with his wife Rosario Murillo as vice presidential candidate in November 2016. Prior to that election, Nicaragua’s top constituency (Consejo Supremo Electoral de Nicaragua) decided that Ortega’s opponent, Liberal Eduardo Montealegre, was not allowed to stand as presidential candidate at the election. Without its supposedly fierce opponent, Ortega won a superb electoral victory with more than 72 percent of the vote.

The policy pursued under Ortega after his return as president differs from the socialist policy of the Sandinists in the 1980s and is now a mix of traditional left-wing values, such as free health care and education, combined with pro-Catholic and pro-business elements. This is a policy that seems to be appropriate for the national economy, which has seen an annual increase of almost 5 per cent in recent years. Despite recent economic growth, Nicaragua is still one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Riot in 2018

2018 has been called an annus horibilis for Nicaragua. In April, the Sandinist government implemented a welfare reform, which meant Nicaraguan people had to pay more money to the National Insurance Fund (INSS) while reducing social security payments and pensions. This reform led to major protests and thousands of Nicaraguan people, most students, demonstrating their displeasure in the larger cities of Nicaragua. These peaceful demonstrations were brutally beaten down by the police, the Sandinist youth and paramilitary groups. Hundreds of protesters have been killed in these meetings. Ortega has been heavily criticized by the UN, OAS, Amnesty and other international bodies, without the repression of his political opponents becoming more visible. In the aftermath of the violent encounters, there has also been a very large emigration to neighboring countries Costa Rica, Honduras and to the United States.

Nicaragua Border Map

Republic of Nicaragua Brief Guide

According to AbbreviationFinder, Nicaragua is a republic on the Central American isthmus. It is the largest but least populated state in Central America. Nicaragua is bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. To the east is the Caribbean Sea and to the west is the Pacific Ocean. The name of the country comes from a combination of the words nicarao and agua. The Nicarotos were the largest indigenous tribe when Spanish conquerors arrived in the country. Agua is Spanish and means water, referring to the country’s two great lakes, Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua.

Entry and exit
fee The most common airlines include charges in the price of the ticket, so no separate charge is required. Arrivals by land in Nicaragua are subject to an entry fee of USD 13 per person (2019) and on departure at the border EUR 2 per person (2019). Payment can also be made in local currency. Exit fees are always paid in person when leaving the country by road. Local authorities may change exit fees without notice.

Everyone participating in the trip must have a valid travel insurance that covers medical expenses in the event of illness or other similar need. Please check the validity of your own insurance and the terms and conditions of the insurance cancellation cover.

Please pay attention to the special nature of your trip and check the coverage of the insurance in that respect as well. In many locations, the insurance must also be valid when moving at an altitude of more than 3,000 meters, in which case it also covers mountain sickness.

Many hiking or diving trips require more extensive insurance, which covers, for example, diving or moving on a glacier. Please check the contents of your insurance with your insurance company.

Make sure that your basic vaccinations under the national vaccination schedule are valid. In addition, we recommend both hepatitis A and B vaccination. Always check the vaccination requirements at the health center or the Vaccination Advice of the Tourist Clinic

Please check the yellow fever vaccination requirements of your destination well in advance of the trip, for example here. An international yellow fever vaccination certificate is required when traveling to some countries. Please also note that in some countries a vaccination certificate is required if you arrive from a country where yellow fever is considered to occur. This is important to consider especially when traveling across multiple states. We recommend that you keep a vaccination card with you when traveling far away.