Towards the 15th century the Guarani managed to advance from the north and east. They had numerical superiority and had a more developed material culture, since they practiced the horticulture of cassava, corn and peanuts. The practice of a slash agriculture allowed them surpluses to maintain a population in continuous demographic increase that required new territories.
Graphics (mistakenly confused with complete writings) have been found in various areas of Paraguay, in what are now cities, such as Tacuatí, Paraguarí, among others; although it is not possible to specify exactly the ethnic groups that made them.
In 1525 Alejo García, a Spanish explorer or in any case a Portuguese nationalized Spanish, was shipwrecked on the island of Santa Catarina.
After the destruction of the first foundation of the city of Buenos Aires, a large part of the Europeans from it took refuge in the strong house founded by Juan de Salazar y Espinosa. The Spanish explorer, a native of Espinosa de los Monteros, founded Asunción on the day of the Assumption, August 15, 1537, near the town led by the Tuvichá Lambaré.
In 1541 the Spanish monarchy appointed Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca as governor of “La Paraguaria” or Paraguay. The Asuncenos considered the presence of Álvar Núñez an “intrusion”, for which in 1544 they dismissed him, imprisoned and sent him to Spain and appointed a neighbor as governor. The king confirmed Irala in such employment, so that the Asuncenos achieved the unique right to appoint their own governors for 182 years, until 1735.
The relationship between Europeans, Creoles and Guarani “Indians” was not always peaceful, as evidenced by the great uprising led by the Tuvichá Oberá between 1579 and 1616, which spread from the Guarambaré region to Asunción and the Ypané basin.
Paraguay limits to the north and to the east with Brazil, to the east and to the south with Argentina and Bolivia to the north and to the west.
The average annual temperature is 22 ° C. Also of temperate and subtropical characteristics is the monthly thermal amplitude. The difference between the coldest and the warmest months is around 10 ° C. In the Gran Chaco and other parts of the Western Region, average temperatures can reach 37.8 ° C in square.
The main mountain ranges of Paraguay are very old, and are part of landslides of larger mountain ranges located in Brazil. Among them we can mention the Cordillera del Mbaracayú, the natural border that separates Paraguay from Brazil, the Cordillera del Amambay, the Cordillera del Ybytyruzú and the Cordillera de Caaguazú.
Paraguay is a unitary state that tends to decentralization, in the manner established by the constitution and the laws. For the purposes of the political and administrative structuring of the country, the national territory is divided into departments, municipalities and districts that enjoy political, administrative and regulatory autonomy for the management of their interests, and autarky in the collection and investment of their resources.. The country is organized into 17 departments and a capital, which is the seat of the powers of the State, constituting a municipality, independent of any department. The capital of the country is Asunción
Departments and their capitals
- Concepción Department – (Concepción)
- San Pedro Department – (San Pedro)
- Cordillera Department – (Caacupé)
- Guairá Department – (Villarrica)
- Caaguazú Department – (Coronel Oviedo)
- Caazapá Department – (Caazapá)
- Itapúa Department – (Encarnacion)
- Misiones Department – (San Juan Bautista)
- Paraguarí Department – (Paraguarí)
- Alto Paraná Department – (Ciudad del Este)
- Central Department – (Areguá)
- Ñeembucú Department – (Pilar)
- Amambay Department – (Pedro Juan Caballero)
- Canindeyú Department – (Salto del Guairá)
- Presidente Hayes Apartment – (Villa Hayes)
- Alto Paraguay Department – (Fort Olympus)
- Boquerón Department – (Philadelphia)
The Paraguayan population is traditionally considered mestizo. In a first phase, the Paraguayan population was the result of the union of indigenous people (mainly of the Guaraní ethnic group) and the Spanish colonizers who arrived in the 16th century. In the eastern region of Paraguay, a group of an indigenous people sought refuge that was very resistant to contact with the whites, the Aché and Guayakí.
Taking into account the high fertility rate (3.6 children per woman), Paraguay has a predominantly young population structure. Four out of ten people are under the age of 15 (2,339,000) and the population aged 15 to 29 represents a quarter of the total population. In 2009, population growth was 1.5%.
60% of Paraguayans live in cities. The most populated cities are Asunción with approximately 560,000 residents, followed by Ciudad del Este with 331,000 residents, San Lorenzo 440,000 residents, Lambaré 160,000 residents, Fernando de la Mora140,000 residents, Capiatá 195,000 residents Encarnación 120,000 residents, Luque 320 225 residents and Pedro Juan Caballero 110,000 residents. In total, the population of Asunción, added to the metropolitan area, gives an estimated population of 2 000 000 residents.
Between 1970 and 2008, the country had the highest economic growth in Latin America, with an annual rate of 7.2%.
The services sector is currently in a full expansion phase, presenting double-digit annual growth. Starting in the 90s, the country has been intensively developing the industrial and tertiary sectors.
The agriculture and livestock are the economic sectors with the greatest potential. The seven most important export products; the soybean and its derivatives (42% of the total Paraguayan exports) making it the fourth largest producer and beef (country certified as free from FMD) and ninth largest exporter.  Also listed are corn, wheat, sesame, sunflower oil, and sugar; all of agricultural origin.  Agro-exports grew in 2007-2008 almost 60%.
According to andyeducation, the most outstanding characteristic of the Paraguayan culture is the persistence of the Guaraní language along with Spanish; This mixture of languages is known by the name of jopara (mixture). The majority of the population knows both languages: Guaraní is used as a domestic language and Spanish as a commercial language and in education. However, Spanish is the majority in all areas in the capital.