Formally independent since 1877 and a republic since 1947, Romania, subjected to a communist regime since the end of the Second World War, freed itself of the dictatorship of Ceausescu with the revolution of December 1989, which was quickly followed by substantial changes to the Constitution of 1965 and the abolition of the leading role of a single party. A new Constitution, approved with the referendum of December 1991, instituted a semi-presidential regime inspired by the French Constitution; a subsequent referendum in October 2003 introduced some changes to the Fundamental Charter. The president of the republic is elected by direct universal suffrage and remains in office for five years, while the Parliament, which is bicameral (a Chamber of Deputies with 332 members and a Senate of 137) and with wide-ranging powers, is elected every four years with the proportional system; the president appoints the prime minister, who in turn chooses the ministers and must gain the confidence of parliament. The judicial system is independent and is headed by a Supreme Court of Justice, whose members are appointed by the President of the Republic on the recommendation of the Superior Council of the Judiciary, composed of 11 judges and six prosecutors, elected by Parliament. There is no death penalty. National defense contemplates the provision of compulsory military service lasting 12 months (18 for voluntary service).
As for the school system, the sanction of the right to education for all citizens dates back to the Constitution of the socialist republic; the structure of the system, deeply reformed in 1995, has maintained compulsory schooling for all children aged 6 to 16 and a substantial centralization in the hands of the state, then dividing the school path into three cycles, elementary (the first eight years), higher (the next four) and university, with the passage to the highest levels regulated by state exams. Visit liuxers for vocational training in Romania. Illiteracy affects 2.4% of the population (2007). then dividing the school path into three cycles, elementary (the first eight years), superior (the next four) and university, with the passage to the highest levels regulated by state exams. Illiteracy affects 2.4% of the population (2007). then dividing the school path into three cycles, elementary (the first eight years), superior (the next four) and university, with the passage to the highest levels regulated by state exams. Illiteracy affects 2.4% of the population (2007).
The axis of Romanian hydrography is naturally the Danube, which for 3/4 of its course in Romanian territory (altogether 1075 km) marks the border of Romania with Bulgaria and Serbia: it is along this last border line that the river runs through the spectacular gorge of the Iron Gates, where the extreme western reaches of the Transylvanian Alps meet the northern ones of the Balkans. After the Iron Gates the Danube is again a majestic river (its average flow rate is 6000 m 3 / s) and sometimes flows in flood areas. Among the numerous watercourses that give it, and whose regime reflects the seasonal trend of rainfall, with maximums between May and June, are the Cris (Crisul) and the Mures through the Tibisco, Olt and Arges (Argesul) directly, the latter drawing water from the outer Carpathian side. After the bend of the Dobruja, the Danube receives the Siret (Siretul) and the Prut, whose sources are however in Ukrainian territory, and flows into the Black Sea with a vast delta in continuous growth given the immense amount of debris conveyed by the River.
Given the low rainy climate, wide expanses of steppes occupy the flat areas of Romania, although today largely replaced by crops and in any case interrupted by riparian vegetation thickened along the watercourses; beautiful coniferous forests, with a predominance of spruce, beech and, at lower altitudes, oaks still cover the mountain slopes: it is not for nothing that the northern section of the Eastern Carpathians is called the Wild Carpathians. Among the animal species present are the brown bear and lynx, chamois, wild boar, plus many species of birds present especially in the Danube Delta region, which is included in one of the largest national parks in Europe. Romania also boasts other national parks, for a total of 11.3% of its territory, plus numerous minor protected areas. The most important parks, in addition to that of the Delta which is listed by UNESCO in the list of world heritage sites, are the Park of the Iron Gates, on the Danube on the border with Serbia, and the Park of the Apuseni Mountains. The country also has several serious environmental problems, and has gone through some real disasters. Air pollution in cities, although monitored regularly for many years, continues to be much higher than the limits considered acceptable; the aquifers of numerous provinces (14 out of 41) present dangerous levels of nitrate pollution; the disposal of solid waste takes place for the most part in spontaneous landfills and in any case without any control. In 2000, the containment dams of mining plants in the Carpathians broke twice, resulting in the pouring into the Tisza and then into the Danube of 100,000 m 3 of water polluted by cyanide and then of another 20,000 t of toxic discharges, which caused a massacre of fish and birds along the whole Romanian course of the Danube up to the Delta.