France Agriculture Part II

France Agriculture 2

According to Zipcodesexplorer, France ranks first among wine producing countries around the world. The vine thrives there in numerous departments up to a limit line that could be traced from Saint-Nazaire to Mézières to Paris. Due to excessive humidity, it is lacking in Brittany, Normandy and Picardy, while its favorite domain is the Mediterranean region and mainly Roussillon and Lower Languedoc, where it thrives in the most diverse soils: in…

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France Agriculture Part I

France Agriculture 1

France has always been and is still today a more agricultural than industrial region. Although there are fewer and fewer peasants out of the total population (75% in 1850, 38.3% in 1926), only a tenth of the country’s surface is not cultivated. Land ownership is very divided: the owners themselves cultivate 60% of the area under cultivation, leaving the tenants 27% and the settlers 13%. Small plots are therefore the…

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France and Italy

France and Italy

In France there was very early knowledge of the renewal that was taking place beyond the Alps. Since 1454 the painter Jean Fouquet has been in Rome, where he also painted a portrait of Eugene IV. He especially fell in love with the new architectural decorations and adorned many scenes of his miniatures (Heures d’Étienne chevalier, Chantilly; portrait of Juvenal des Ursins, Louvre). The French prelates to the Holy See…

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France Literature Part IV

France Literature 04

To Blanchot, to Bataille, as to M. Leiris (born in 1901) or to Céline, who experienced a new success in the 1950s (see in this App.), And therefore to the more distant experiences of Sade, Lautréamont, Kafka, by Joyce, by Proust himself (for the technique of the interior monologue), some of the newest and most original novelists of the latter period are based, from M. Duras and P. Klossowski, to…

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France Literature Part III

France Literature 03

According to Softwareleverage, the traditional novel, which still follows the thread of a chronological narrative and the tested conventions of “intrigue”, albeit already with a different awareness of linguistic tools, of objective representation, and of the literary “function” itself, have also addressed numerous writers of the post-war generation, and of recent years, without however reaching original results, or of “renewal in tradition”, if anything with an illusory out-of-time revival of…

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France Literature Part II

France Literature 02

But it is certainly in the philosophy of the 1960s that these various influences find their point of convergence, with a clearer configuration of the phenomenon, also due to a sensational controversy which itself constitutes an important literary fact, and far transcends the terms of the question.. Already in 1957 J. Pommier, a professor at the Sorbonne, had severely criticized Barthes’s Michelet par lui-même (1954) and Richard’s essay on Baudelaire, collected in…

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France Literature Part I

France Literature 01

According to Shopareview, the most conspicuous and most significant phenomenon in French literature of the last fifteen years is undoubtedly the “nouvelle critique”. Not only has literary criticism as never before enjoyed a robust and aggressive health as in this period, but it has managed to condition or bring out with more incisive evidence the metamorphoses and a new concept of literature, with essential modifications of terms, structures, expression. It…

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France History – The Second Empire Part IV

France History - The Second Empire 4

Eventually the Olivier tendency prevailed, and through a series of reforms implemented between 1867 and 1870 the constitution of the empire was changed in a distinctly liberal-parliamentary sense. The transformation carried out was sanctioned on 8 May 1870 by an imposing popular plebiscite: seven and a half million votes in favor against one and a half million opponents. According to Programingplease, the consensus of the huge majority of the population…

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France History – The Second Empire Part III

France History - The Second Empire 3

The great political crisis that began with the Plombières agreements in the summer of 1858 and ended in the spring of 1861 with the proclamation of the kingdom of Italy, allowed Napoleon to agitate in front of public opinion, at the end of the first decade of his personal regime, the result of reaching the natural borders on the Alps, that is, an increase in territory and power and at…

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France History – The Second Empire Part II

France History - The Second Empire 2

According to Physicscat, the first emergence of such a policy took place during the presidency, when Napoleon thought he could take advantage of the Austro-Prussian dissension over Germanic problems to try to get closer to Prussia, in view of an anti-Austrian action. The capitulation of the Hohenzollerns before the Habsburgs, sanctioned with the humiliation of Olmütz (December 1850), halted the development of the attempt and pushed Napoleonic politics to the…

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France History – The Second Empire Part I

France History - The Second Empire 1

The regime that Louis Napoleon had established, recalling the orders of Napoleon I to life, was to last until September 1870, although it changed in the last period in the sense of the progressive loosening of the brakes and the progressive attenuation of authoritarianism, up to approaching liberal forms. Like that of the first Napoleon, the regime of Napoleon III, very strong in the first phase, had to weaken due…

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France History – The July Monarchy Part III

France History - The July Monarchy 3

The government practice in which the sovereign and the minister agreed from 1840 onwards consisted of a sort of hoarding the majority of the electors and elected representatives, through offers of offices, favors, compensation, associated with prudent systems of pressure.. The method was easy due to the relative scarcity of the electoral body (never exceeding 240 thousand elements), which could easily be influenced by the prefects and government officials for…

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France History – The July Monarchy Part II

France History - The July Monarchy 2

Thus the July monarchy broke the danger of international isolation, which was a great advantage, even if it was paid with the necessary sacrifices to capture England: the suspension of the development of the Algerian enterprise, and the refusal of the Belgian throne, offered in a first time to a son of Louis Philippe. finding justification also in the affinities between the forms of government of the two countries: a…

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France History – The July Monarchy Part I

France History - The July Monarchy 1

Louis Philippe officially took possession of the throne on 9 August 1830, after having accepted and sworn the Charter in which the chamber, which Charles X had tried to dissolve, had introduced important and characteristic modifications: the suppression of inheritance for peers, the ‘lowering of the electoral census to 200 francs, the adoption of the tricolor and the formula “King of the French” to define the new sovereign, whose authority…

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France History – The Battle of May to June 1940 Part III

France History - The Battle of May to June 1940 3

According to Neovideogames, the new German attack was launched on the morning of June 5, against the so-called “Weygand line” or “of the three rivers”; that is, the new line that the French generalissimo had had to set up in a few days along the Somme, the Oise and the Aisne. The main lines of the new attack were: one on the average Somme, that is in the region of…

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France History – The Battle of May to June 1940 Part II

France History - The Battle of May to June 1940 2

The German command, in short, after having managed to attract large allied forces towards the north-east, having identified the weak point of the opposing armor in correspondence with the stretch where the Maginot line joined the lines of dubious resistance that extended it to the sea, had vibrated there his hammer blow, managing to overwhelm the French defense and thus obtaining that in little more than a week from the…

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France History – The Battle of May to June 1940 Part I

France History - The Battle of May to June 1940 1

On the eve of May 10, 1940, the German army in its offensive array against the Allies was divided into three groups of armies. By far the most efficient forces were naturally mobilized in areas where the OKW had decided to fight its decisive maneuvering battle. Therefore, since against Maginot, where the enemy was fearfully barricaded, nothing conclusive could be achieved, Hitler had established that the group of armies “C”…

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France Geological Evolution Part III

France Geological Evolution 3

Such folds in the French Alps spread to the west, and in the Pyrenees, on the other hand, to the north. In the latter the carriageways are apparently almost finished with the middle Paleogenic. In the Eastern Pyrenees the chain was broken up by subsidence, and the ancient folds were leveled over high areas. The remains of the Pyrenees attacked by erosion actually formed most of the soil of Aquitaine,…

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France Geological Evolution Part II

France Geological Evolution 2

In the Cretaceous period, the difference between the Hercinian area and the Alpine area became clearer, on which the folds that prepare those of the Tertiary already appear. The Wealdian, with its clays and its continental or coastal sands, indicates an emergence in the Paris Basin, while in the Jura, during the Lower Cretaceous, zoogenic limestones are still formed and in the Alps muddy limestones of deep sea are deposited…

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France Geological Evolution Part I

France Geological Evolution 1

According to Hyperrestaurant, the great orogenic movements of the Hercinian era affected the entire French territory. In the Alps and also in the Pyrenees there are evident traces even of bending of the Carbonic, accompanied by metamorphism and by injections of eruptive magma. A small carboniferous basin has been preserved in the Alps (La Mure), and of others remains are observed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The Hercinian hoof exists deep…

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France Folklore Part III

France Folklore 3

A section of folklore that has not yet been thoroughly studied is that of popular games for adults and children. Historically this study is based on the long list of Rabelais, who in the Pantagruel enumerates the games with which the boy Gargantua played. Medieval documents also allow us to ascertain that certain games still in use were already known in the century. XII, e.g. that of the soule (leather ball filled with bran),…

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France Folklore Part II

France Folklore 2

Popular jewels do not present, for the most part, originality: sometimes the persistence of the Merovingian technique is noted; but for the most part, as a form, they depend on the Italian Renaissance. On the other hand, except for the silver ones, made in the villages, they were bought in the cities, where the workers were influenced by the large centers. Another part of clothing that once presented great variety…

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France Folklore Part I

France Folklore 1

As far as popular literature is concerned, fairy tales – after the Contes del Perrault which, in the century XVII, marked the beginning of all such collections – they greatly interested the public during the whole century. XVIII; but only in the following, under the influence of the Celtic movement and romanticism, did the collection become truly scientific. France now possesses a rich literature on the folk tales of the various provinces;…

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France Figurative Arts Part III

France Figurative Arts 3

Also committed to the criticism of a certain social condition, but in a more serene way, the painting of G. Schlosser (born in 1931) is characterized as a chronicle of daily life in France among the working classes, made starting from photographic documents, some details of which are enlarged and shown on canvas, sometimes at the limits of legibility. With Schlosser we arrive at the most recent currents, presented to…

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France Figurative Arts Part II

France Figurative Arts 2

In this return to figuration and storytelling, two fundamental attitudes can therefore be distinguished. On the one hand, the figurative image is itself taken as an object of the creative process: through processes of decomposition, accumulation, etc., its constitutive laws, syntactic structures, thresholds of legibility and so on are analyzed: in short, it is all a rhetoric or, better still, a semiotics of the image that is being processed. Among…

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France Figurative Arts Part I

France Figurative Arts 1

The Sixties marked a turning point in French artistic life: a progressive disaffection of young artists towards abstract art was manifested, which, on the other hand, corresponded to a growing interest in the figure. According to Ethnicityology, this spontaneous return to figuration unites very divergent tendencies at the beginning of the 1960s. On the one hand, we meet former traditional figurative painters such as P. Rebeyrolle (born in 1926) who…

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France Economy Between 1958 and 1961 Part II

France Economy Between 1958 and 1961 2

The strikes, of exceptional magnitude, carried out in the spring of 1968, influenced the Grenelle agreements; these agreements, of a national nature, have led to large wage increases and a reduction in working hours. Wage increases, not having fully passed on to selling prices, have increased consumer demand, allowing industry to use both capital and labor more. What was called the “November crisis” led the government to draw up an…

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France Economy Between 1958 and 1961 Part I

France Economy Between 1958 and 1961 1

Traditionally, state intervention has characterized the French economy, assuming peculiar characteristics that lead to speak of “French-style planning”. The objective of the 3rd floor (1958-61) was that of a significant improvement in productivity, combined with a development of professional training and the balance of foreign exchanges. The 4th and especially the 5th floor emphasized the adaptation of the French economy to international competition and the changes that this entailed. Since…

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Tour de France Overview

Tour de France Overview

Tour de France [turdə Frà ː s], road cycling: The most significant multi-stage race in the world for professional cyclists, the year in July in France is discharged. Tracks and jerseys The first tour was run in 1903, since then (except 1915–18 and 1940–46) it has been held annually in July. The 107th edition was postponed by two months to late summer due to the coronavirus pandemic (29.8. – 20.9.2020).…

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France 2003

France Border Map

Yearbook 2003 France. At the beginning of the year, President Jacques Chirac emerged as the leading figure in Europe for opposition to US plans for an attack on Iraq and for the view that UN weapons inspectors should be given more time. This led to a crack in relations with the United States and the United Kingdom, which considered that France was sabotaging attempts to reach a consensus within the…

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