In 2003, Turkmenistan was located in the Central Asian region. It had a population of around 5 million people and its economy was largely driven by oil and gas production, agriculture, and the textile industry. The country maintained an authoritarian government with a strong emphasis on civil liberties and social welfare. According to computergees, Turkmenistan maintained strong diplomatic ties with other Central Asian nations such as Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan while it also had close relations with the European Union. In 2003, tourism to the country was beginning to grow as visitors were drawn to its vibrant cities, unique culture, and diverse landscape. The country offered numerous attractions such as Darvaza Gas Crater which showcased the unique history of the region, Köýtendag Nature Reserve which provided opportunities for wildlife viewing, Nissa Fortress which offered stunning views of natural beauty, and Kunya-Urgench which protected native plants and animals. Additionally, there were many opportunities for outdoor activities such as exploring Ashgabat or visiting Merv which is home to vibrant street art scenes.
Turkmenistan. In January, 46 people were sentenced to prison sentences accused of trying to assassinate President Saparmurat Nijazov the year before. The trial was held behind closed doors and followed for several weeks by arrests and recognitions in front of TV cameras. Just before the turn of the year, the former Foreign Minister and later opposition leader Boris Sjichmuradov had been sentenced to life imprisonment accused of participation in the attack.
According to Countryaah.com, Turkmenistan Independence Day is September 27. The European Security and Cooperation Organization, the OSCE, condemned the arrests and talked about the shooting processes and confessions that were brought forward during torture. The OSCE also reported a wave of torture, mass arrests and harassment of relatives of oppositionists. The organization accused the state media of “Stalinist” methods against the accused. The president’s Turkmen opponents claimed that he had arranged the attack as a pretext to strike the opposition.
In parallel with the persecution of the opposition, the one-sided Nijazov tried to buy his support by promising free Mercedes cars to all ministers, regional leaders and other high officials. They were promised a new car every year with instructions to pass the old one on to their staff. The promise could seem attractive in a country that has enormous gas wealth but where the people live on an economic level like many African countries. At the same time, the president set up a new commission to oversee politicians ‘trips abroad and follow foreigners’ movements in Turkmenistan.
The unpredictable Nijazov also came up with a call to the country’s mass media to stop praising him. He explained that the people would be bored by his name and image constantly appearing on TV. But in 2003, Parliament had previously been dedicated to the deceased mother of the president, “the mother of Turkmenistan’s first and eternal president”.
During the fall, four opposition groups joined in exile and formed a common front, the Turkmenistan Alliance’s democratic forces.
Turkmenistan Brief Guide
According to AbbreviationFinder, Turkmenistan is a state in Central Asia, on the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea. Its neighbors are Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
Turkmenistan has 1,768 kilometers of Caspian coastline and covers about 80 percent of its territory in the Karakum Desert. The highest peak in the southwestern mountains rises to 2912 meters and the highest mountain peak in Turkmenistan, Ayrybaba, to 3137 meters. Three major rivers flow through the land, Amy Darja, Murghab and Tejen, which flow into the Caspian Sea, which in turn has no landing river into the oceans.
Turkmenistan’s climate is a dry desert climate, one of the driest in the world, rainfall is very rare. In some places it rains only 12 millimeters a year, in other places only once every ten years. Winters are mild and dry, with most of the rainfall occurring between January and May. In the mountains, of course, it rains more. The highest temperature in the capital, Ashgabat, was measured in July 1983 as high as 51.7 ° C.
Check the coverage of your phone with your carrier. The area code for Turkmenistan is +993.
Food & beverage In
Turkmenistan, a lot of yoghurts and other sour milk products made from milk are eaten. Traditional dishes use the meat of camel, cow, goat and sheep, which is cooked or baked inside the dough crust.
You should only eat freshly cooked food and avoid buffets. Peel all the fruits, cook the vegetables and wash the salads with purified water. Tap water is not drinkable.
Population, society and rights
Estimates on the population of Turkmenistan show a notable growth in the post-1991 phase. In the same period the ethnic composition of the population has also changed, with a sharp increase in the percentage of Turkmenistan (from 72% in 1989 to 85% in 2003). detriment of minorities. This phenomenon was mainly the result of the discriminatory treatment applied to the detriment of minorities – in education and access to the labor market – starting with the redefinition of the Turkmen national identity on an ethno-linguistic basis. A census was carried out in 2012 and some partial data were published on an internal portal; however, the issue of minorities and ethnic balances is very delicate and the estimates are often distorted for political purposes.
The Turkmen population is predominantly Sunni Muslim (89%), but the role played by Islam in the country is entirely marginal, partly due to the legacy of the Soviet seventies and partly due to the strict control exercised by the authorities over religious organizations. The main denominational minority is the Russian Orthodox (9%).
Despite Berdimuhammedov’s emphasis on the need for institutional reform, the current presidency has implemented only marginal interventions, which have not affected the total lack of democracy. Defined by Freedom House as a ‘police state’, Turkmenistan records the lowest democratization score on a regional scale together with Uzbekistan. The government inherited from the Soviet Union – and still maintains, not tolerating any form of dissent – a system of control over the trade union organization and the activities of civil society. On the other hand, the government retains absolute control over the media. There are no private or independent news channels and only one private newspaper is legally distributed in the country. In this sense,Osce on freedom of expression.
The high level of state revenues, resulting from hydrocarbon exports, allows the government to maintain a consistent system of public subsidies, which curb popular discontent and make the country seemingly impervious to the popular uprisings that took place in the Middle East. after 2010. According to the more classic rentier state approach, the revenues from the energy sector also allow the government to maintain patronage networks, fueling clientelist logic. These practices, in addition to hindering a coherent socio-economic development of the country, are at the root of the considerable spread of corruption at all levels of the administration.