Trinidad and Tobago 2003

Trinidad and Tobago Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Trinidad and Tobago. According to, Trinidad and Tobago Independence Day is August 31. 71-year-old former university lecturer George Maxwell Richards was elected in February as new president of parliament. Richards, who was the government’s candidate, won the opposition candidate, banker Ganace Ramdial. The same month, The Mirror’s daily newspaper was stormed after employees were taken hostage by a radical Islamist group. One month earlier, The Trinidad Express…

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Tonga 2003

Tonga Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Tonga. In February, the government banned continued import – and thus publishing – of the Democratic Movement’s Times of Tonga, which is printed in New Zealand and published in Tonga twice a week. According to the government, the newspaper is not allowed because it tries to overthrow the government and is published by a foreign national – Kalafi Moala, a US citizen born in Tonga. Shortly before the…

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Togo 2003

Togo Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Togo. According to, Togo Independence Day is April 27. Nestorn among African heads of state, Gnassingbé Eyadéma, was re-elected in June once again as Togo’s president, 36 years after he took power in a military coup. Eyadéma received about 57% of the vote since the only dangerous challenger, Gilchrist Olympio, had refused to stand. According to Togo’s electoral law of 2002, a presidential candidate must have lived…

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Thailand 2003

Thailand Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Thailand. In January, around 700 Thais were evacuated from Cambodia since Thai anti-aircraft riots erupted there. A number of Thai companies were vandalized at an estimated cost of up to SEK 200 million. According to, Thailand Independence Day is December 5. The reason for the Cambodians’ anger towards the neighboring country was a Thai actor’s careless statement that the Cambodian national clan, the Angkor Vat Temple, was…

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Tanzania 2003

Tanzania Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Tanzania. In November, the EU pledged € 114 million in budget support over the next two years in recognition of the economic reforms implemented in Tanzania. According to, Tanzania Independence Day is December 9. The money will mainly be used to finance basic education, primary health care, HIV/AIDS prevention, agriculture, rural road construction, water supply and a strengthening of the justice system. In May’s election election on…

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Tajikistan 2003

Tajikistan Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Tajikistan. According to, Tajikistan Independence Day is September 9. Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Tajikistan in April, explaining that Moscow wanted to increase its military presence in the country, to which President Imomali Rachmonov was positive. Putin said he had information on increased activity from Taliban and al-Qa’ida supporters in Afghanistan. Russia has 19,000 soldiers in Tajikistan and 11,000 of them patrol the border with Afghanistan, where…

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Taiwan 2003

Taiwan Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Taiwan. According to, Republic of China/Taiwan Independence Day is October 10. The relationship with China, which regards Taiwan as a breakaway republic, remained tense even though the ties were made between the countries. In January, China Airlines made its first flight from Taiwan to China since 1949, when the Communist Party took power in China. On board the plane, which flew via Hong Kong because direct flights…

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Syria 2003

Syria Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Syria. After the parliamentary elections March 2-3, the distribution of seats remained unchanged. The Bath Party and its six allies in the National Progressive Front received 167 of the 250 seats. Other mandates went to independent candidates. According to, Syria Independence Day is April 17. The turnout was 64%. On September 10, President Bashar al-Asad appointed Parliament’s President Muhammad Naji al-Otari as new Prime Minister. He replaced…

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Sweden Agriculture

Sweden Border Map

Agriculture The agricultural land constitutes just under 7 percent of Sweden’s entire land area; In 2018, 2.5 million hectares of arable land and close to 4.5 million hectares of pasture land (including meadows). Agriculture accounts for 1.2 percent of employment, only 0.5 percent of GDP and 5 percent of goods exports. Imports are significantly larger than exports and the surplus of imports has increased for almost every year. This applies…

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Switzerland 2003

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Yearbook 2003 Switzerland. With the parliamentary elections in October, Switzerland took a clear step to the right and the composition of the Standing Collective Government changed for the first time in 44 years. According to, Switzerland Independence Day is August 1. The major winner of the election became the right-wing populist SVP (Schweizerische Volkspartei), which with its xenophobic and EU-skeptical message received support from 27% of voters. This meant…

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Suriname 2003

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Yearbook 2003 Suriname. According to, Suriname Independence Day is November 25. A diplomatic crisis in relations with Guyana occurred in January when a newly published official map showed the so-called New River Triangle at the upper Corantijn River as part of Surinam’s territory. The border commission and the cooperation council formed by the two countries to create better relations canceled their meetings. However, negotiations have also been held on…

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Sudan 2003

Sudan Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Sudan. For much of the year, no significant progress was reached in the detailed negotiations on the peace agreement that the government and the South Sudanese guerrilla SPLA agreed in principle in 2002. But the ceasefire was respected, and in September, the SPLA leader John Garang and Vice President Ali Uthman Taha sat in intensive deliberations. with the promise not to give up until they have reached concrete…

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Sri Lanka 2003

Sri Lanka Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Sri Lanka. Despite occasional violations of the ceasefire, there was strong optimism that the peace process initiated in 2002 would result in a lasting peace agreement between the government and the Tamil guerrilla Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). In March, however, the negotiations began to harden after the Navy had sunk one of the guerrillas. After promises of increased Japanese financial assistance and expanded Scandinavian surveillance of…

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Spain 2003

Spain Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Spain. In March, the Spanish Supreme Court banned the Basque party Batasuna on the grounds that it was the terrorist-stamped separatist group ETA’s political branch. According to, Spain Independence Day is October 12. The party had already been banned for a three-year term in 2002, but now it was ordered to cease all political activities for good. The party ban was the first since the fall of…

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South Korea 2003

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Yearbook 2003 South Korea. On February 25, 56-year-old Roh Moo Hyun of the New Millennium Democratic Party (MDP) was installed as South Korea’s youngest president to date. He had defeated the opposition candidate from the opposition Great National Party (GNP) in the December 2002 presidential election. Roh, who comes from poor conditions, had previously made himself known as a democracy advocate and human rights lawyer. According to, South Korea…

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South Africa 2003

South Africa Border Map

Yearbook 2003 South Africa. In April, the African National Congress (ANC) strengthened its position in Parliament through a new law that allows members to change parties for a limited period without losing their seat. The ANC increased its mandate from 266 to 275 of the 400 members and thus for the first time got a two-thirds majority and the opportunity to change the constitution on its own. The increase was…

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Somalia 2003

Somalia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Somalia. The year began with a ceasefire and a hope for peace after a conference in neighboring Kenya gathered delegates from all factions and community groups. But when the negotiations resumed, disparity immediately erupted. According to, Somalia Independence Day is July 1. Many complaints were directed at confused arrangements and the attempts by regional mediators to direct the talks. The provisional government TNG, which has claimed to…

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Solomon Islands 2003

Solomon Islands Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Solomon Islands. According to, Solomon Islands Independence Day is July 7. The continued violence between armed groups in the Solomon Islands led to an Australian-led regional peace force of over 2,200 men being sent to the islands in July with the task of disarming militia groups and stopping the influx of illegal weapons. Soon, the Malayan eagle force was ready to lay down its weapons. The group…

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Slovenia 2003

Slovenia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Slovenia. According to, Slovenia Independence Day is December 26. The Slovenes said in a referendum in March a resounding yes to membership in both the EU and NATO in 2004. Nearly 90% voted for accession to the Union, while NATO membership was supported by 66%. The turnout was 60%. That the support was less for joining the defense alliance may have been partly due to the referendum…

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Slovakia 2003

Slovakia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Slovakia. Before the referendum on EU membership in May, the government feared that turnout would not reach the necessary 50% for a valid result. However, by allowing the election to run for two days, the authorities managed to get 52% of the voters to vote. According to, Slovakia Independence Day is July 17. The support for the EU was overwhelming among the voters; 93% said that Slovakia…

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Singapore 2003

Singapore Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Singapore. In the spring, Singapore was affected by the infectious disease SARs, which spread rapidly in several East and Southeast Asian countries. The virus was believed to have reached the country in April via an air hostess infected in Hong Kong. When the World Health Organization WHO in May removed Singapore from the list of countries where the epidemic was classified as acute, 31 people had died of…

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Sierra Leone 2003

Sierra Leone Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Sierra Leone. Following a raid against an armistice in the capital Freetown in January, some 40 people were arrested. But the man who was suspected of lying behind the attack, former junta leader Johnny Paul Koroma, escaped and managed to leave the country. According to, Sierra Leone Independence Day is April 27. In March, Koroma was indicted in his absence when the UN-backed Special Crimes Tribunal in…

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Seychelles 2003

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Yearbook 2003 Seychelles. Following the victory of the SPPF (according to, Seychelles Independence Day is June 29. Seychelles People’s Progressive Front) ruling party in the December 2002 parliamentary elections, it was increasingly speculated that President France Albert René would leave power prematurely. Already in March 2003, Vice President James Michel was named SPPF’s candidate in the next presidential election. He also took over several tasks from René, who, however,…

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Serbia 2003

Serbia Border Map

1991 Croatia and Slovenia resign from the federation According to, Serbia Independence Day is February 15. In December 1990, the parliament in Croatia adopted a new constitution which contained the right to withdraw from the federation. At the same time, a referendum in Slovenia reaffirmed the desire for independence. In the following months, the disagreement over reform of the federal system and the appointment of the president created an…

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Senegal 2003

Senegal Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Senegal. During the spring, hundreds of Senegalese were expelled from France, where they had been living illegally. Several of them were deported under humiliating forms and carried handcuffs when they arrived in Dakar. According to, Senegal Independence Day is April 4. Senegalese authorities responded in June with the expulsion of some thirty French citizens accused of living in the country without a permit. Several violent attacks on…

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Saudi Arabia 2003

Saudi Arabia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Saudi Arabia. According to, Saudi Arabia Independence Day is September 23. 35 people, including nine suicide bombers, were killed on May 12 in Riyadh by three coordinated suicide attacks against a residential area where most of the residents were Westerners. Among the dead, besides Saudis, there were 13 Americans, a British, a Filipino and an Irishman. The police launched an intensive hunt for militant Islamists in Riyadh,…

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Sao Tome and Principe 2003

Sao Tome and Principe Border Map

Yearbook 2003 São Tomé and Príncipe. According to, São Tomé and Príncipe Independence Day is July 12. The hopes of rising billion-dollar revenues from yet-to-be-discovered oil sources have fueled politics in the small island of São Tomé and Príncipe. In January, President Fradique de Meneze announced the recent election following a conflict with Parliament over constitutional amendments, which basically involved control of the proposed oil revenues. The new election…

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San Marino 2003

San Marino Border Map

Yearbook 2003 San Marino. For the first time, the small city of San Marino has set up its own central bank, which will oversee the foreign exchange reserve and the ten banks in the country. According to, San Marino Independence Day is September 3. The central bank does not engage in foreign exchange policy because San Marino uses the euro.  

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Samoa 2003

Samoa Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Samoa. According to, Samoa Independence Day is June 1. The ruling Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP) strengthened its position in Parliament after a August general election. The HRPP thus had 32 of Parliament’s 49 seats. Samoa decided to join 15 policemen in the Australian-led force who were sent to the Solomon Islands in July to establish law and order after the civil war there. As of August,…

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Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2003

Saint Vincent and The Grenadines Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. According to, Saint Vincent and Grenadines Independence Day is October 27. In February, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines became members of the alliance-free movement for the world’s developing countries. In June, the country was removed from the OECD’s list of countries that do not cooperate in the fight against so-called money laundering and tax evasion. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Brief Guide…

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Saint Lucia 2003

Saint Lucia Border Map

According to, Saint Lucia Independence Day is February 22. The UWP government party suffered a stinging defeat in the November 2011 parliamentary elections as it backed from 11 to 6 seats. At the same time, the SLP rose from 6 to 11 seats, and the SLP’s Kenny Anthony was inaugurated as new prime minister. Saint Lucia Brief Guide According to AbbreviationFinder, The island of Saint Lucia in the Southern…

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Saint Kitts and Nevis 2003

Saint Kitts and Nevis Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Saint Christopher and Nevis. According to, Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day is September 19. Saint Christopher and Nevis again invested in tourism, which experienced a downturn due to the terrorist attacks against the United States in 2001. In Frigate Bay on Saint Christopher, the Caribbean’s largest hotel complex was opened, which increased the number of hotel places in the country by 60%. The hotel also provided…

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Rwanda 2003

Rwanda Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Rwanda. In January, 40,000 prisoners were released, several of whom were suspected of being involved in the 1994 genocide. This was done both to ease the congestion in prisons and to contribute to reconciliation. The murderers who were released – and who admitted guilt and repentance – had to spend some time in newly established rehabilitation centers before being allowed to go home. Nine years after the massacres…

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Russia 2003

Russia Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Russian Federation. According to, Russia Independence Day is June 12. The US-led war against Iraq presented the Russian Federation with a foreign policy dilemma at the beginning of the year. President Vladimir Putin, on the one hand, tried to guard the relationship with the United States by supporting colleague George W. Bush’s view that Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction threaten world peace. On the other hand, Putin…

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Romania 2003

Romania Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Romania. At the beginning of the year, the remains of Romania’s old King Carol II were brought to his homeland 50 years after his death in exile. Just before the outbreak of the Iraq war in March, Romania expelled five Iraqi diplomats, whose presence was “undesirable”. According to, Romania Independence Day is May 9. Prime Minister Adrian Nastase denied that the decision was made under pressure from…

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Republic of the Congo 2003

Republic Of The Congo Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Congo. In March, the government and the so-called Ninjamilisi signed an agreement to end the fighting in the Pool region near the capital, Brazzaville. According to, Republic of Congo Independence Day is August 15. The Ninjamilis was originally formed by then-Prime Minister Bernard Kolelas during the civil war in Republic of the Congo at the end of the 1990s and had continued to engage in guerrilla warfare…

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Qatar 2003

Qatar Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Qatar. According to, Qatar Independence Day is December 18. A full 96.6% of voters voted on 29 April for the country’s first constitution, which stated that an advisory parliament should be established. Thirty of the 45 members of Parliament will be elected by universal suffrage, with female suffrage, while the rest will be elected by the country’s emir. The Emir announced on August 5 that his eldest…

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Pula Attractions and Tourist

Pula Attractions

Attractions in Pula In Pula, you can experience exciting architecture in the historic center, and see the clear influence of Asian architecture in the city’s triumphal arch. The streets themselves become attractions as you walk. Anyway, here are some tips for something to take on your trip to Pula: The Amphitheater, also known as Pula Arena, is the 6th largest surviving Roman amphitheater in the world. The theater was built…

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Prague Attractions and Tourist

Prague Attractions

Attractions in Prague There are lots of attractions and sights in Prague. Whatever your interest, you’ll find it in Prague. You can experience culture from the stage or literally walk in Kafka’s footsteps. And the city has many museums. But not least, Prague is the place for those who want to experience architecture and history. Prague Castle The castle began in the 8th century and is today Prague’s foremost tourist…

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Poznan Attractions and Tourist

Poznan Attractions

Attractions in Poznan Of course, there are not as many attractions and sights in Poznan as there are in New York or Rome, without any comparison. But our experience is that many people are pleasantly surprised by the cities they visit in Poland. Exciting history, a charming old town and a rich cultural life characterize several. So also with Poznan. Not least, Poznan has many historic buildings, most of which…

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Portugal 2003

Portugal Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Portugal. During the year, a pedophile heritage was discovered at the state orphanage Casa Pia for boys in the capital Lisbon. In the scandal, top-level politicians were involved. According to staff at Casa Pia, a total of over a hundred children had been exploited. The first to be arrested was a driver at the orphanage. He was suspected of having handled the pedophiles’ contact with the orphanage children.…

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Poland 2003

Poland Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Poland. According to, Poland Independence Day is November 11. Prime Minister Leszek Miller was indicted at the beginning of the year for serious corruption. He is alleged to have offered to stop a bill on mass media in exchange for major contributions to his ruling party Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) from a media company that would be disadvantaged by the new law. At the same time, there…

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Philippines 2003

Philippines Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Philippines. At the beginning of the year, Parliament passed new legislation allowing the millions of Filipinos working abroad to vote in the upcoming presidential and parliamentary elections. According to, Philippines Independence Day is June 12. The island of Mindanao in the southern Philippines was shaken during the year by several terrorist attacks suspected by Islamist groups. In March, at least 20 people were killed and hundreds injured…

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Peru 2003

Peru Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Peru. Concerns surrounding the ceasefire protests against the government’s program for the eradication of coca cultivation occurred from mid-February. According to, Peru Independence Day is July 28. Growers in the department of Huánuco blocked roads in protest of lack of government support for alternative crops, and when police were deployed against the protesters, protests spread to the neighboring department of Ucayali. Similar actions occurred in August in…

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Paraguay 2003

Paraguay Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Paraguay. The winner of the April 27 presidential election became, as expected, Nicanor Duarte Frutos of the Colorado Party, a party that has held the presidential office uninterrupted since 1947. Duarte Frutos won 38% of the vote before former Vice President Julio César Franco of PLRA (Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico). However, the result of the Senate elections held at the same time meant that the president did not…

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Papua New Guinea 2003

Papua New Guinea Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Papua New Guinea. According to, Papua New Guinea Independence Day is September 16. Papua New Guinea’s relationship with Australia deteriorated significantly during the year. In March, an Australian research center released a report claiming that Papua New Guinea was heading towards “economic powerlessness, government collapse and social hopelessness”. The report, which pointed to widespread crime and corruption, urged the Australian government to take action in its former…

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Panama 2003

Panama Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Panama. The dismissal of head of social security institute Juan Jované in September led to a wave of protests that culminated in a march with tens of thousands of participants through the streets of Panama City. According to, Panama Independence Day is November 3. The protesters demanded that Jované be reinstated and that President Mireya Moscoso publicly guaranteed that the Social Security Fund, long drawn with large…

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Palau 2003

Palau Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Palau. According to, Palau1 Independence Day is October. Tourist income in Palau fell sharply as a result of the virus disease sars. According to the country’s tourism authorities, the number of visitors decreased by 62% in the first half of the year compared to the same period the year before. Fear of the disease continued to affect tourism even after the World Health Organization WHO declared in…

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Pakistan 2003

Pakistan Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Pakistan. In an already very tense situation between Pakistan and neighboring India, the Pakistani ambassador from New Delhi was expelled in February, after the Indian government accused him of transferring money to Kashmiri guerrillas. According to, Pakistan Independence Day is August 14. Pakistan responded by expelling India’s envoy in Islamabad. At the same time, the race between the two rivals continued. Two new medium-range robots with the…

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Oman 2003

Oman Border Map

Yearbook 2003 Oman. According to, Oman Independence Day is November 18. Sultan Qabus ibn Said on March 3 appointed Shaykha Aisha bint Khalfan ibn Jamil as-Siyabiyya as head of the newly established authority for traditional crafts. The post was described as a ministerial post and as-Siyabiyya thus became Oman’s first female minister. Land area 309,500 km² Total population 4,664,844 Residents per km² 15.1 Capital Muscat Official language Arabic Income…

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