Cuba Population

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Cuba is 11,059,062, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 11,059,062
Population growth rate -0.25%
Birth rate 10.70 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall 78.05 years
Men 75.77 years
Women 80.46 years
Age structure
0-14 years 16.44%
15-64 years 68.33%
65 years and above 15.22%
Median age 40.40 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 0.99
Population density 99.76 residents per km²
Urbanization 75.60%
50% African-European, 37% European, 11% African, 1% Asian
nominally 85% Catholics (Roman Catholic) before Fidel Castro came to power. Also Protestants, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Jews and Santeria
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.778
HDI ranking 72nd out of 194

People in Cuba

11 million people live in Cuba. They are predominantly the descendants of those who once came from Europe and of the Africans who were brought here as slaves. 66 percent of the population are white, 10 percent are black. The remainder have both white and black ancestors.

The majority of Cubans live in cities, namely 77 percent. 2 million of the 11 million residents live in Havana alone.

The Taíno

But who were the residents before Christopher Columbus landed here in 1492 and was mainly followed by Spaniards? The people who lived here (and on the other islands of the Greater Antilles) were the Taíno. The Taíno were forced to work on their plantations by the Spanish. Many died of diseases that were brought in from Europe and against which they had no defenses. The Taíno were already extinct in the 17th century.

Children and old people

Life expectancy in Cuba is 79.2 years and is one of the highest in Latin America. The birth rate has now fallen and is 1.7 children per woman. It is slightly higher than in Germany (1.4 children).

Languages in Cuba

Spanish is spoken in Cuba. However, it is different from the Spanish spoken in Spain. The Seseo is typical (c before e and i is pronounced like s, not like the English th). The word cine (cinema) is therefore pronounced “ssine”. Many Cubans pronounce an r at the end of a syllable like an l. So puerta (door) becomes “puelta”. This is often difficult for Spaniards to understand.

Other peculiarities in Cuban Spanish are: The politeness form ustedes has replaced the Spanish vosotros. A d in the middle of a word is often left out: Helado (ice cream) is then pronounced like “ela-o”. While in Spanish a double l (as in llamar) is pronounced as lj, in Cuba it is only pronounced as j. By the way, that’s called yeísmo. The sound ch (as in German “ach”) does not exist, it is spoken like h.

Religions in Cuba

Most Cubans belong to the Catholic Church. Many Catholics practice a kind of mixed religion. Catholic elements are mixed with those from the religion of the West African Yoruba. These came to Cuba with the slaves from West Africa.

This mixed religion is called Santería. The gods of the Santería are the Orishas. They merge with saints of the Catholic Church. The orishas are honored in trance dances and sacrifices are made to them. You can light a candle, lay fruit or slaughter an animal.

The priests of the Santería give advice to the faithful, consult the oracle and work as healers. Amulets are important to the believers and they believe in the magical powers of herbs. A mixture of at least 21 herbs is called omiero and is particularly important in rituals. The herbs are dissolved in rainwater and are considered a healing potion.

Anyone who converts to the faith of the Santería must wear white clothing for a year. The pendants can also often be recognized by a pearl bracelet, the pulso.

Religious minorities are Protestants, but their number is growing, as well as Jehovah’s Witnesses, Muslims and Jews. There are only two religious holidays in Cuba: Christmas on December 25th and Good Friday.

Cuba Overview

Cuba, situated in the Caribbean, is famous for its vibrant culture, colorful streets, and historic landmarks. The country’s capital city, Havana, is renowned for its colonial architecture, vintage cars, and lively music scene, with iconic sites like the Malecón and Plaza Vieja capturing the essence of Cuban life. Cuba’s sandy beaches, such as Varadero and Cayo Coco, attract sun-seekers and water sports enthusiasts from around the world, while its lush tobacco fields produce some of the finest cigars. Despite economic challenges, Cuba’s resilient spirit, rich history, and warm hospitality continue to charm visitors.

  • Capital City: Havana
  • Population: Approximately 11.3 million
  • Area: 109,884 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Republic of Cuba
  • Currency: Cuban Peso (CUP), Cuban Convertible Peso (CUC)
  • Language: Spanish
  • ISO Country Codes: CU, CUB

Bordering Countries of Cuba

Cuba is a Caribbean island nation located south of the United States, east of Mexico and west of the Bahamas. It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the north. Cuba has a total land area of 110,860 square kilometers and its population is approximately 11 million people.

To the east of Cuba lies Haiti, a Caribbean country with an estimated population of 10.9 million people. It has an underdeveloped economy reliant on subsistence agriculture and tourism as well as remittances from abroad. Haiti also has a rich cultural heritage with many different ethnic groups living together in harmony.

To the southeast lies Jamaica, an island nation with an estimated population of 2.9 million people. Its economy is largely based on services such as banking and finance as well as some light manufacturing sectors such as electronics production or textiles production. Jamaica is known for its beautiful beaches and lush vegetation which attract tourists from all over world looking for relaxation or adventure activities like scuba diving or hiking in its stunning natural landscapes.

To the southwest lies The Cayman Islands, a British overseas territory with an estimated population of 60 thousand people. Its economy relies heavily on services such as banking and finance along with some light manufacturing industries such as pharmaceuticals production or electronics assembly plants which attract foreign investors looking for tax incentives offered by this jurisdiction. The Cayman Islands are known for their stunning beaches surrounded by lush vegetation which make them popular tourist destinations for beach activities like swimming or snorkeling in crystal clear waters filled with colorful sea life inhabitants.

To the northwest lies The Bahamas, an archipelagic state consisting of more than 700 islands with an estimated population of 392 thousand people residing mainly in New Providence Island which is home to Nassau – its capital city – along with two other major cities – Freeport and Grand Bahama Island. Its economy relies heavily on tourism due to its stunning beaches filled with crystal clear waters perfect for swimming or snorkeling activities along with other attractions such as fishing trips in shallow reefs filled with colorful sea life inhabitants that attract visitors from all over world looking for relaxation or adventure experiences alike in this paradise destination located just off United States coastlines.

Finally, to the north lies Florida, a state belonging to United States mainland located just 90 miles away from Cuban coastlines across Straits Of Florida that separates both countries sharing same timezone (UTC-5). Florida has a total land area of 170 thousand square kilometers and its population is approximately 20 million people making it third most populous state in US after California and Texas respectively while having one strongest economies within US relying heavily on services sector along some manufacturing industries that contribute significantly into GDP making it one wealthiest states per capita income within US according to latest census data published by US government in 2020Q2 period.


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